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Active and species-specific dispersal behaviour in a marine nematode cryptic species complex

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Abstract
Dispersal is a 3-step process, consisting of a departure, transience and settlement step. In marine nematodes, dispersal is expected to be passive because nematodes lack an active planktonic phase. The transoceanic distribution of several species suggests effective large-scale dispersal. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether nematodes can actively influence their dispersal and whether species-specific differences exist. Such differences could contribute to the commonly observed co-existence of ecologically similar species. Three separate experiments were conducted on 4 species of the cryptic species complex of Litoditis marina (Pm I, Pm II, Pm III and Pm IV) to test the effect of species identity and behaviour in the dispersal steps. A flume experiment demonstrated that nematode emergence increased with increasing flow speed and that they could also actively emerge from decomposing algae (departure step). Movement analysis of nematodes in seawater highlighted behaviour which contributes to the transience step. The settlement experiment demonstrated that L. marina can choose on which substratum to settle in still water. Species-specific differences were found in the departure and transience steps. In the departure step, Pm IV exhibited more active behaviour than Pm I. In the transience step, Pm II and Pm IV showed the highest body bend frequency. These species-specific differences correspond with geographical distribution patterns, which are smaller in the species with weaker dispersal behaviour, and lend support to the idea that dispersal can facilitate coexistence of closely related species through a trade-off between competition and dispersal.
Keywords
Active dispersal, Cryptic species, Nematodes, FREE-LIVING MARINE, TURBULENT TIDAL CREEK, SMALL-SCALE DISPERSAL, PELLIODITIS-MARINA, ESTUARINE NEMATODES, COMMUNITY ECOLOGY, CYANOBACTERIAL BIOFILMS, HARPACTICOID COPEPODS, SELECTIVE SETTLEMENT, GENETIC-STRUCTURE

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Citation

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MLA
De Meester, Nele et al. “Active and Species-specific Dispersal Behaviour in a Marine Nematode Cryptic Species Complex.” MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES 600 (2018): 71–83. Print.
APA
De Meester, N., Van Daele, T., Van Malderen, J., Da Costa Monteiro, L., Van Colen, C., Derycke, S., & Moens, T. (2018). Active and species-specific dispersal behaviour in a marine nematode cryptic species complex. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES, 600, 71–83.
Chicago author-date
De Meester, Nele, T Van Daele, J Van Malderen, Luana Da Costa Monteiro, Carl Van Colen, Sofie Derycke, and Tom Moens. 2018. “Active and Species-specific Dispersal Behaviour in a Marine Nematode Cryptic Species Complex.” Marine Ecology Progress Series 600: 71–83.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Meester, Nele, T Van Daele, J Van Malderen, Luana Da Costa Monteiro, Carl Van Colen, Sofie Derycke, and Tom Moens. 2018. “Active and Species-specific Dispersal Behaviour in a Marine Nematode Cryptic Species Complex.” Marine Ecology Progress Series 600: 71–83.
Vancouver
1.
De Meester N, Van Daele T, Van Malderen J, Da Costa Monteiro L, Van Colen C, Derycke S, et al. Active and species-specific dispersal behaviour in a marine nematode cryptic species complex. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES. 2018;600:71–83.
IEEE
[1]
N. De Meester et al., “Active and species-specific dispersal behaviour in a marine nematode cryptic species complex,” MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES, vol. 600, pp. 71–83, 2018.
@article{8598898,
  abstract     = {Dispersal is a 3-step process, consisting of a departure, transience and settlement step. In marine nematodes, dispersal is expected to be passive because nematodes lack an active planktonic phase. The transoceanic distribution of several species suggests effective large-scale dispersal. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether nematodes can actively influence their dispersal and whether species-specific differences exist. Such differences could contribute to the commonly observed co-existence of ecologically similar species. Three separate experiments were conducted on 4 species of the cryptic species complex of Litoditis marina (Pm I, Pm II, Pm III and Pm IV) to test the effect of species identity and behaviour in the dispersal steps. A flume experiment demonstrated that nematode emergence increased with increasing flow speed and that they could also actively emerge from decomposing algae (departure step). Movement analysis of nematodes in seawater highlighted behaviour which contributes to the transience step. The settlement experiment demonstrated that L. marina can choose on which substratum to settle in still water. Species-specific differences were found in the departure and transience steps. In the departure step, Pm IV exhibited more active behaviour than Pm I. In the transience step, Pm II and Pm IV showed the highest body bend frequency. These species-specific differences correspond with geographical distribution patterns, which are smaller in the species with weaker dispersal behaviour, and lend support to the idea that dispersal can facilitate coexistence of closely related species through a trade-off between competition and dispersal.},
  author       = {De Meester, Nele and Van Daele, T and Van Malderen, J and Da Costa Monteiro, Luana and Van Colen, Carl and Derycke, Sofie and Moens, Tom},
  issn         = {0171-8630},
  journal      = {MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES},
  keywords     = {Active dispersal,Cryptic species,Nematodes,FREE-LIVING MARINE,TURBULENT TIDAL CREEK,SMALL-SCALE DISPERSAL,PELLIODITIS-MARINA,ESTUARINE NEMATODES,COMMUNITY ECOLOGY,CYANOBACTERIAL BIOFILMS,HARPACTICOID COPEPODS,SELECTIVE SETTLEMENT,GENETIC-STRUCTURE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {71--83},
  title        = {Active and species-specific dispersal behaviour in a marine nematode cryptic species complex},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps12658},
  volume       = {600},
  year         = {2018},
}

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