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Most ecological studies of the effects of climate on species are based on average conditions above ground level (measured by meteorological stations) averaged across 100 km(2) or larger areas. However, most terrestrial organisms experience conditions in a much smaller area at the ground surface or within vegetation canopies, the climate of which can be very different to large-scale averages. Therefore, to accurately characterise the climatic conditions suitable for species, it is essential to include microclimate information. Microclimates are affected by the shape of the landscape, including the steepness and aspect of slopes, height above sea level, proximity to the sea or inland water, and whether a site is in a valley or at the top of a hill. Plants also modify the conditions found within or below their canopies, with the structure of vegetation playing an important role. The recent increase in the availability ofmicrosensors and remotely sensed data at appropriate resolutions has led some ecologists to begin to includemicroclimate information within a variety of contexts; however the field can be confusing and intimidating and mistakes are often made along the way. In this chapter, we provide an overview of microclimatic processes and summarise the available methods of measuring and modelling microclimate data for incorporation in ecological research. We highlight pitfalls to avoid emerging novel methods and the limitations of some techniques. We also consider future research directions and opportunities within this emerging field.
Keywords
SPECIES DISTRIBUTION MODELS, SPATIAL-RESOLUTION, AIR-TEMPERATURE, RAIN-FOREST, MICROCLIMATIC CONDITIONS, HABITAT SELECTION, CANOPY STRUCTURE, CHANGE IMPACTS, SOIL-MOISTURE, LAPSE RATES

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Citation

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MLA
Bramer, Isobel, et al. “Advances in Monitoring and Modelling Climate at Ecologically Relevant Scales.” Next Generation Biomonitoring, Part 1, edited by David A. Bohan et al., vol. 58, Elsevier, 2018, pp. 101–61, doi:10.1016/bs.aecr.2017.12.005.
APA
Bramer, I., Anderson, B. J., Bennie, J., Bladon, A. J., De Frenne, P., Hemming, D., … Gillingham, P. K. (2018). Advances in monitoring and modelling climate at ecologically relevant scales. Next Generation Biomonitoring, Part 1, 58, 101–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.aecr.2017.12.005
Chicago author-date
Bramer, Isobel, Barbara J. Anderson, Jonathan Bennie, Andrew J. Bladon, Pieter De Frenne, Deborah Hemming, Ross A. Hill, et al. 2018. “Advances in Monitoring and Modelling Climate at Ecologically Relevant Scales.” Edited by David A. Bohan, Alex J. Dumbrell, Guy Woodward, and Michelle Jackson. Next Generation Biomonitoring, Part 1 58: 101–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.aecr.2017.12.005.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bramer, Isobel, Barbara J. Anderson, Jonathan Bennie, Andrew J. Bladon, Pieter De Frenne, Deborah Hemming, Ross A. Hill, Michael R. Kearney, Christian Körner, Amanda H. Korstjens, Jonathan Lenoir, Ilya M. D. Maclean, Christopher D Marsh, Michael D. Morecroft, Ralf Ohlemüller, Helen D. Slater, Andrew J. Suggitt, Florian Zellweger, and Phillipa K. Gillingham. 2018. “Advances in Monitoring and Modelling Climate at Ecologically Relevant Scales.” Ed by. David A. Bohan, Alex J. Dumbrell, Guy Woodward, and Michelle Jackson. Next Generation Biomonitoring, Part 1 58: 101–161. doi:10.1016/bs.aecr.2017.12.005.
Vancouver
1.
Bramer I, Anderson BJ, Bennie J, Bladon AJ, De Frenne P, Hemming D, et al. Advances in monitoring and modelling climate at ecologically relevant scales. Bohan DA, Dumbrell AJ, Woodward G, Jackson M, editors. Next generation biomonitoring, part 1. 2018;58:101–61.
IEEE
[1]
I. Bramer et al., “Advances in monitoring and modelling climate at ecologically relevant scales,” Next generation biomonitoring, part 1, vol. 58, pp. 101–161, 2018.
@article{8598875,
  abstract     = {{Most ecological studies of the effects of climate on species are based on average conditions above ground level (measured by meteorological stations) averaged across 100 km(2) or larger areas. However, most terrestrial organisms experience conditions in a much smaller area at the ground surface or within vegetation canopies, the climate of which can be very different to large-scale averages. Therefore, to accurately characterise the climatic conditions suitable for species, it is essential to include microclimate information. Microclimates are affected by the shape of the landscape, including the steepness and aspect of slopes, height above sea level, proximity to the sea or inland water, and whether a site is in a valley or at the top of a hill. Plants also modify the conditions found within or below their canopies, with the structure of vegetation playing an important role. The recent increase in the availability ofmicrosensors and remotely sensed data at appropriate resolutions has led some ecologists to begin to includemicroclimate information within a variety of contexts; however the field can be confusing and intimidating and mistakes are often made along the way. In this chapter, we provide an overview of microclimatic processes and summarise the available methods of measuring and modelling microclimate data for incorporation in ecological research. We highlight pitfalls to avoid emerging novel methods and the limitations of some techniques. We also consider future research directions and opportunities within this emerging field.}},
  author       = {{Bramer, Isobel and Anderson, Barbara J. and Bennie, Jonathan and Bladon, Andrew J. and De Frenne, Pieter and Hemming, Deborah and Hill, Ross A. and Kearney, Michael R. and Körner, Christian and Korstjens, Amanda H. and Lenoir, Jonathan and Maclean, Ilya M. D. and Marsh, Christopher D and Morecroft, Michael D. and Ohlemüller, Ralf and Slater, Helen D. and Suggitt, Andrew J. and Zellweger, Florian and Gillingham, Phillipa K.}},
  editor       = {{Bohan, David A. and Dumbrell, Alex J. and Woodward, Guy and Jackson, Michelle}},
  isbn         = {{9780128139493}},
  issn         = {{0065-2504}},
  journal      = {{Next generation biomonitoring, part 1}},
  keywords     = {{SPECIES DISTRIBUTION MODELS,SPATIAL-RESOLUTION,AIR-TEMPERATURE,RAIN-FOREST,MICROCLIMATIC CONDITIONS,HABITAT SELECTION,CANOPY STRUCTURE,CHANGE IMPACTS,SOIL-MOISTURE,LAPSE RATES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{101--161}},
  publisher    = {{Elsevier}},
  title        = {{Advances in monitoring and modelling climate at ecologically relevant scales}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aecr.2017.12.005}},
  volume       = {{58}},
  year         = {{2018}},
}

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