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Redox zonation and organic matter oxidation in palaeogroundwater of glacial origin from the Baltic Artesian Basin

(2018) CHEMICAL GEOLOGY. 488. p.149-161
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Abstract
Ordovician-Cambrian aquifer system (O-Cm) in the northern part of the Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB), Estonia, is part of a unique groundwater reservoir where groundwater originating from glacial meltwater recharge from the Scandinavian Ice Sheet is preserved. The distribution of redox zones in the anoxic O-Cm aquifer system is unusual. Strongly reducing conditions are found near the modern recharge area characterized by low concentrations of sulphate (< 5 mg.L-1) and the presence of CH4 (up to 3.26 vol%). The concentrations of SO42-increase and concentrations of CH4 decrease farther down the groundwater flow path. Sulphate in fresh glacial palaeogroundwater originates probably from pyrite oxidation while brackish waters have gained their sulphate through mixing with relict saline formation waters residing in the deeper parts of the aquifer system. Stable isotopic composition of sulphate, especially relations between delta O-18(SO4)- delta O-18(water) (Delta O-18(SO4-) (H2O) from + 20.5 to + 31.1 parts per thousand) and delta S-34(SO4)-delta S-34(H2S) (Delta S-34(SO4-) (H2S) value of + 47.9 parts per thousand) support a widespread occurrence of bacterial sulphate reduction in fresh glacial palaeogroundwater. We propose, that the observed unusual redox zonation is a manifestation of two different flow systems in the O-Cm aquifer system: 1) the topographically driven flow system which drives the infiltration of waters through the overlying carbonate formation in the modern recharge area; 2) the relict flow system farther down the groundwater flow path which developed as a response to large hydraulic gradients imposed by the Scandinavian Ice Sheet in Pleistocene. Thus, the strongly reducing conditions surrounding the modern recharge area may show the extent to which post-glacial recharge has influenced the aquifer system. O-Cm aquifer system is an example of an aquifer that has not reached a near-equilibrium state with respect to present day flow conditions and still exhibits hydrogeochemical patterns established under the influence of a continental ice sheet in Pleistocene.
Keywords
CAMBRIAN-VENDIAN AQUIFER, BACTERIAL SULFATE REDUCTION, SULFUR ISOTOPE, FRACTIONATION, SHALLOW SANDY AQUIFER, OXYGEN-ISOTOPE, GEOCHEMICAL, EVOLUTION, DISSOLVED SULFATE, DISSIMILATORY SULFATE, MICROBIAL, COMMUNITIES, SEAWATER CHEMISTRY, Palaeohydrogeology, Redox zonation, Isotopic composition of sulphate, Bacterial sulphate reduction

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Citation

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MLA
Parn, Joonas, et al. “Redox Zonation and Organic Matter Oxidation in Palaeogroundwater of Glacial Origin from the Baltic Artesian Basin.” CHEMICAL GEOLOGY, vol. 488, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018, pp. 149–61.
APA
Parn, J., Affolter, S., Ivask, J., Johnson, S., Kirsimae, K., Leuenberger, M., … Walraevens, K. (2018). Redox zonation and organic matter oxidation in palaeogroundwater of glacial origin from the Baltic Artesian Basin. CHEMICAL GEOLOGY, 488, 149–161.
Chicago author-date
Parn, Joonas, Stephane Affolter, Juri Ivask, Sean Johnson, Kalle Kirsimae, Markus Leuenberger, Tonu Martma, et al. 2018. “Redox Zonation and Organic Matter Oxidation in Palaeogroundwater of Glacial Origin from the Baltic Artesian Basin.” CHEMICAL GEOLOGY 488: 149–61.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Parn, Joonas, Stephane Affolter, Juri Ivask, Sean Johnson, Kalle Kirsimae, Markus Leuenberger, Tonu Martma, Valle Raidla, Stefan Schloemer, Holar Sepp, Rein Vaikmae, and Kristine Walraevens. 2018. “Redox Zonation and Organic Matter Oxidation in Palaeogroundwater of Glacial Origin from the Baltic Artesian Basin.” CHEMICAL GEOLOGY 488: 149–161.
Vancouver
1.
Parn J, Affolter S, Ivask J, Johnson S, Kirsimae K, Leuenberger M, et al. Redox zonation and organic matter oxidation in palaeogroundwater of glacial origin from the Baltic Artesian Basin. CHEMICAL GEOLOGY. 2018;488:149–61.
IEEE
[1]
J. Parn et al., “Redox zonation and organic matter oxidation in palaeogroundwater of glacial origin from the Baltic Artesian Basin,” CHEMICAL GEOLOGY, vol. 488, pp. 149–161, 2018.
@article{8592034,
  abstract     = {Ordovician-Cambrian aquifer system (O-Cm) in the northern part of the Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB), Estonia, is part of a unique groundwater reservoir where groundwater originating from glacial meltwater recharge from the Scandinavian Ice Sheet is preserved. The distribution of redox zones in the anoxic O-Cm aquifer system is unusual. Strongly reducing conditions are found near the modern recharge area characterized by low concentrations of sulphate (< 5 mg.L-1) and the presence of CH4 (up to 3.26 vol%). The concentrations of SO42-increase and concentrations of CH4 decrease farther down the groundwater flow path. Sulphate in fresh glacial palaeogroundwater originates probably from pyrite oxidation while brackish waters have gained their sulphate through mixing with relict saline formation waters residing in the deeper parts of the aquifer system. Stable isotopic composition of sulphate, especially relations between delta O-18(SO4)- delta O-18(water) (Delta O-18(SO4-) (H2O) from + 20.5 to + 31.1 parts per thousand) and delta S-34(SO4)-delta S-34(H2S) (Delta S-34(SO4-) (H2S) value of + 47.9 parts per thousand) support a widespread occurrence of bacterial sulphate reduction in fresh glacial palaeogroundwater. We propose, that the observed unusual redox zonation is a manifestation of two different flow systems in the O-Cm aquifer system: 1) the topographically driven flow system which drives the infiltration of waters through the overlying carbonate formation in the modern recharge area; 2) the relict flow system farther down the groundwater flow path which developed as a response to large hydraulic gradients imposed by the Scandinavian Ice Sheet in Pleistocene. Thus, the strongly reducing conditions surrounding the modern recharge area may show the extent to which post-glacial recharge has influenced the aquifer system. O-Cm aquifer system is an example of an aquifer that has not reached a near-equilibrium state with respect to present day flow conditions and still exhibits hydrogeochemical patterns established under the influence of a continental ice sheet in Pleistocene.},
  author       = {Parn, Joonas and Affolter, Stephane and Ivask, Juri and Johnson, Sean and Kirsimae, Kalle and Leuenberger, Markus and Martma, Tonu and Raidla, Valle and Schloemer, Stefan and Sepp, Holar and Vaikmae, Rein and Walraevens, Kristine},
  issn         = {0009-2541},
  journal      = {CHEMICAL GEOLOGY},
  keywords     = {CAMBRIAN-VENDIAN AQUIFER,BACTERIAL SULFATE REDUCTION,SULFUR ISOTOPE,FRACTIONATION,SHALLOW SANDY AQUIFER,OXYGEN-ISOTOPE,GEOCHEMICAL,EVOLUTION,DISSOLVED SULFATE,DISSIMILATORY SULFATE,MICROBIAL,COMMUNITIES,SEAWATER CHEMISTRY,Palaeohydrogeology,Redox zonation,Isotopic composition of sulphate,Bacterial sulphate reduction},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {149--161},
  publisher    = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
  title        = {Redox zonation and organic matter oxidation in palaeogroundwater of glacial origin from the Baltic Artesian Basin},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.04.027},
  volume       = {488},
  year         = {2018},
}

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