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Convergence in the functional properties of forelimb muscles in carnivorans : adaptations to an arboreal lifestyle?

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Abstract
The arboreal environment is complex and irregular and imposes significant constraints on the locomotor ability of vertebrates, resulting in morphological adaptations. Carnivorans are of particular interest because they radiated several times independently into the arboreal milieu, leading to convergence in long bone anatomy. We investigated whether the forelimb muscles show differences in arboreal vs. terrestrial species and tested for convergence in muscle architecture. To do so, we studied the forelimb muscles in 17 species of carnivorans with different locomotor modes (arboreal and terrestrial). Our results showed that the forelimb musculature evolved in a convergent manner in arboreal species, resulting in more forceful and heavier wrist rotators and elbow flexors, even when accounting for phylogeny. This suggests that selective forces imposed by the environment drive the evolution of the muscular system towards a convergent phenotype that provides a functional advantage for locomotion in the complex three-dimensional arboreal habitat.
Keywords
arboreality, climbing, evolution, habitat, locomotion, mammals, musculature, CHEETAH ACINONYX-JUBATUS, DIFFERENT LOCOMOTOR HABITS, RACCOON PROCYON-LOTOR, MUSTELOID CARNIVORANS, FIBER ARCHITECTURE, MORPHOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE, APPENDICULAR MUSCULATURE, RESISTANCE EXERCISE, REACTION FORCES, PERCH DIAMETER

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MLA
Taverne, Maxime et al. “Convergence in the Functional Properties of Forelimb Muscles in Carnivorans : Adaptations to an Arboreal Lifestyle?” BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY 125.2 (2018): 250–263. Print.
APA
Taverne, M., Fabre, A.-C., Herbin, M., Herrel, A., Peigné, S., Lacroux, C., Lowie, A., et al. (2018). Convergence in the functional properties of forelimb muscles in carnivorans : adaptations to an arboreal lifestyle? BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, 125(2), 250–263.
Chicago author-date
Taverne, Maxime, Anne-Claire Fabre, Marc Herbin, Anthony Herrel, Stéphane Peigné, Camille Lacroux, Aurélien Lowie, Fanny Pagès, Jean-Christophe Theil, and Christine Böhmer. 2018. “Convergence in the Functional Properties of Forelimb Muscles in Carnivorans : Adaptations to an Arboreal Lifestyle?” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (2): 250–263.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Taverne, Maxime, Anne-Claire Fabre, Marc Herbin, Anthony Herrel, Stéphane Peigné, Camille Lacroux, Aurélien Lowie, Fanny Pagès, Jean-Christophe Theil, and Christine Böhmer. 2018. “Convergence in the Functional Properties of Forelimb Muscles in Carnivorans : Adaptations to an Arboreal Lifestyle?” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (2): 250–263.
Vancouver
1.
Taverne M, Fabre A-C, Herbin M, Herrel A, Peigné S, Lacroux C, et al. Convergence in the functional properties of forelimb muscles in carnivorans : adaptations to an arboreal lifestyle? BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY. 2018;125(2):250–63.
IEEE
[1]
M. Taverne et al., “Convergence in the functional properties of forelimb muscles in carnivorans : adaptations to an arboreal lifestyle?,” BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 250–263, 2018.
@article{8589878,
  abstract     = {The arboreal environment is complex and irregular and imposes significant constraints on the locomotor ability of vertebrates, resulting in morphological adaptations. Carnivorans are of particular interest because they radiated several times independently into the arboreal milieu, leading to convergence in long bone anatomy. We investigated whether the forelimb muscles show differences in arboreal vs. terrestrial species and tested for convergence in muscle architecture. To do so, we studied the forelimb muscles in 17 species of carnivorans with different locomotor modes (arboreal and terrestrial). Our results showed that the forelimb musculature evolved in a convergent manner in arboreal species, resulting in more forceful and heavier wrist rotators and elbow flexors, even when accounting for phylogeny. This suggests that selective forces imposed by the environment drive the evolution of the muscular system towards a convergent phenotype that provides a functional advantage for locomotion in the complex three-dimensional arboreal habitat.},
  author       = {Taverne, Maxime and Fabre, Anne-Claire and Herbin, Marc and Herrel, Anthony and Peigné, Stéphane and Lacroux, Camille and Lowie, Aurélien and Pagès, Fanny and Theil, Jean-Christophe and Böhmer, Christine},
  issn         = {0024-4066},
  journal      = {BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY},
  keywords     = {arboreality,climbing,evolution,habitat,locomotion,mammals,musculature,CHEETAH ACINONYX-JUBATUS,DIFFERENT LOCOMOTOR HABITS,RACCOON PROCYON-LOTOR,MUSTELOID CARNIVORANS,FIBER ARCHITECTURE,MORPHOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE,APPENDICULAR MUSCULATURE,RESISTANCE EXERCISE,REACTION FORCES,PERCH DIAMETER},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {250--263},
  title        = {Convergence in the functional properties of forelimb muscles in carnivorans : adaptations to an arboreal lifestyle?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/bly123},
  volume       = {125},
  year         = {2018},
}

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