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Exercise alters and β-alanine combined with exercise augments histidyl dipeptide levels and scavenges lipid peroxidation products in human skeletal muscle

(2018) JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY. 125(6). p.1767-1778
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Abstract
Carnosine and anserine are dipeptides synthesized from histidine and β-alanine by carnosine synthase (ATPGD1). These dipeptides, present in high concentration in the skeletal muscle, form conjugates with lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal (HNE). Although skeletal muscle levels of these dipeptides could be elevated by feeding β-alanine, it is unclear how these dipeptides and their conjugates are affected by exercise training with or without β-alanine supplementation. We recruited twenty physically active men, who were allocated to either β-alanine or placebo-feeding group matched for VO2 peak, lactate threshold, and maximal power (Wmax). Participants completed 2 weeks of conditioning phase followed by 1 week of exercise testing (CPET) and a single session followed by 6 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT). Analysis of muscle biopsies showed that the levels of carnosine and ATPGD1 expression were increased after CPET and decreased following a single session and 6 weeks of HIIT. Expression of ATPGD1 and levels of carnosine were increased upon β-alanine-feeding after CPET, while ATPGD1 expression decreased following a single session of HIIT. The expression of fiber type markers myosin heavy chain (MHC) I and IIa remained unchanged after CPET. Levels of carnosine, anserine, carnosine-HNE, carnosine-propanal and carnosine-propanol were further increased after 9 weeks of β-alanine supplementation and exercise training, but remained unchanged in the placebo-fed group. These results suggest that carnosine levels and ATPGD1 expression fluctuates with different phases of training. Enhancing carnosine levels by β-alanine feeding could facilitate the detoxification of lipid peroxidation products in the human skeletal muscle.
Keywords
Exercise Physiology and Sport Nutrition, acrolein, carnosine, exercise, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, CARNOSINE CONTENT, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS, ALDOSE REDUCTASE, VASTUS LATERALIS, SUPPLEMENTATION, METABOLISM, DAMAGE, ACROLEIN, IDENTIFICATION, ANSERINE

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MLA
Hoetker, David et al. “Exercise Alters and Β-alanine Combined with Exercise Augments Histidyl Dipeptide Levels and Scavenges Lipid Peroxidation Products in Human Skeletal Muscle.” JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY 125.6 (2018): 1767–1778. Print.
APA
Hoetker, D., Chung, W., Zhang, D., Zhao, J., Schmidtke, V. K., Riggs, D. W., Derave, W., et al. (2018). Exercise alters and β-alanine combined with exercise augments histidyl dipeptide levels and scavenges lipid peroxidation products in human skeletal muscle. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 125(6), 1767–1778.
Chicago author-date
Hoetker, David, Weiliang Chung, Deqing Zhang, Jingjing Zhao, Virginia K Schmidtke, Daniel W Riggs, Wim Derave, Aruni Bhatnagar, David Bishop, and Shahid P Baba. 2018. “Exercise Alters and Β-alanine Combined with Exercise Augments Histidyl Dipeptide Levels and Scavenges Lipid Peroxidation Products in Human Skeletal Muscle.” Journal of Applied Physiology 125 (6): 1767–1778.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Hoetker, David, Weiliang Chung, Deqing Zhang, Jingjing Zhao, Virginia K Schmidtke, Daniel W Riggs, Wim Derave, Aruni Bhatnagar, David Bishop, and Shahid P Baba. 2018. “Exercise Alters and Β-alanine Combined with Exercise Augments Histidyl Dipeptide Levels and Scavenges Lipid Peroxidation Products in Human Skeletal Muscle.” Journal of Applied Physiology 125 (6): 1767–1778.
Vancouver
1.
Hoetker D, Chung W, Zhang D, Zhao J, Schmidtke VK, Riggs DW, et al. Exercise alters and β-alanine combined with exercise augments histidyl dipeptide levels and scavenges lipid peroxidation products in human skeletal muscle. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY. 2018;125(6):1767–78.
IEEE
[1]
D. Hoetker et al., “Exercise alters and β-alanine combined with exercise augments histidyl dipeptide levels and scavenges lipid peroxidation products in human skeletal muscle,” JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 125, no. 6, pp. 1767–1778, 2018.
@article{8589559,
  abstract     = {Carnosine and anserine are dipeptides synthesized from histidine and β-alanine by carnosine synthase (ATPGD1). These dipeptides, present in high concentration in the skeletal muscle, form conjugates with lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal (HNE). Although skeletal muscle levels of these dipeptides could be elevated by feeding β-alanine, it is unclear how these dipeptides and their conjugates are affected by exercise training with or without β-alanine supplementation. We recruited twenty physically active men, who were allocated to either β-alanine or placebo-feeding group matched for VO2 peak, lactate threshold, and maximal power (Wmax). Participants completed 2 weeks of conditioning phase followed by 1 week of exercise testing (CPET) and a single session followed by 6 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT). Analysis of muscle biopsies showed that the levels of carnosine and ATPGD1 expression were increased after CPET and decreased following a single session and 6 weeks of HIIT. Expression of ATPGD1 and levels of carnosine were increased upon β-alanine-feeding after CPET, while ATPGD1 expression decreased following a single session of HIIT. The expression of fiber type markers myosin heavy chain (MHC) I and IIa remained unchanged after CPET. Levels of carnosine, anserine, carnosine-HNE, carnosine-propanal and carnosine-propanol were further increased after 9 weeks of β-alanine supplementation and exercise training, but remained unchanged in the placebo-fed group. These results suggest that carnosine levels and ATPGD1 expression fluctuates with different phases of training. Enhancing carnosine levels by β-alanine feeding could facilitate the detoxification of lipid peroxidation products in the human skeletal muscle.},
  author       = {Hoetker, David and Chung, Weiliang and Zhang, Deqing and Zhao, Jingjing and Schmidtke, Virginia K and Riggs, Daniel W and Derave, Wim and Bhatnagar, Aruni and Bishop, David and Baba, Shahid P},
  issn         = {8750-7587},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Exercise Physiology and Sport Nutrition,acrolein,carnosine,exercise,4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal,CARNOSINE CONTENT,ANTIOXIDANT STATUS,ALDOSE REDUCTASE,VASTUS LATERALIS,SUPPLEMENTATION,METABOLISM,DAMAGE,ACROLEIN,IDENTIFICATION,ANSERINE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {1767--1778},
  title        = {Exercise alters and β-alanine combined with exercise augments histidyl dipeptide levels and scavenges lipid peroxidation products in human skeletal muscle},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00007.2018},
  volume       = {125},
  year         = {2018},
}

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