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Transhumance as a driving force of landscape change in the marginal grabens of northern Ethiopia

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Abstract
Transhumance between the Afar lowlands and Tigray escarpments has been a common practice in northern Ethiopia. However, the impact of transhumance on landscape changes in the marginal grabens has not been significantly researched. Hence, this study aims to understand the process of transhumance and the linkages between social and biophysical aspects of the graben landscapes of northern Ethiopia. Google Earth (2010-2016) and Landsat Imageries (1995-2015) were used to analyse the spatio-temporal landscape changes. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was applied to measure the change in vegetation cover. Interview and Focus Group Discussions were used to collect perceptions of communities on transhumance and landscape change. The findings reveal that transhumance caused conflicts between the lowlanders and highlanders, which in turn led to displacement of communities. Consequently, the NDVI value of the abandoned settlement increased over time. Conversely, the analysis of Google Earth Imageries and NDVI values show that vegetation cover of the new settlement has decreased. Moreover, the NDVI values of the transhumance areas showed little increase due to the establishments of exclosures in the escarpments. The findings of this study can, therefore, be used to develop targeted interventions aimed at solving transhumance-induced conflicts, displacement of communities and conservation of natural resources.
Keywords
Settlement, Landscape, Social conflict, Pastoralism, Agriculture, Ethiopia, LAND-COVER, WATER CONSERVATION, CULTURAL LANDSCAPE, TIGRAY, MANAGEMENT, AREAS, EXTENSIFICATION, DEFORESTATION, ABANDONMENT, EXCLOSURES

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MLA
Welemaram, Zbelo Tesfamariam, et al. “Transhumance as a Driving Force of Landscape Change in the Marginal Grabens of Northern Ethiopia.” SINGAPORE JOURNAL OF TROPICAL GEOGRAPHY, vol. 40, no. 3, 2019, pp. 476–95.
APA
Welemaram, Z. T., Nyssen, J., Ghebreyohannes, T., Tafere, K., Zenebe, A., Poesen, J., … Van Eetvelde, V. (2019). Transhumance as a driving force of landscape change in the marginal grabens of northern Ethiopia. SINGAPORE JOURNAL OF TROPICAL GEOGRAPHY, 40(3), 476–495.
Chicago author-date
Welemaram, Zbelo Tesfamariam, Jan Nyssen, Tesfaalem Ghebreyohannes, Kelemework Tafere, Amanuel Zenebe, Jean Poesen, Seppe Deckers, and Veerle Van Eetvelde. 2019. “Transhumance as a Driving Force of Landscape Change in the Marginal Grabens of Northern Ethiopia.” SINGAPORE JOURNAL OF TROPICAL GEOGRAPHY 40 (3): 476–95.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Welemaram, Zbelo Tesfamariam, Jan Nyssen, Tesfaalem Ghebreyohannes, Kelemework Tafere, Amanuel Zenebe, Jean Poesen, Seppe Deckers, and Veerle Van Eetvelde. 2019. “Transhumance as a Driving Force of Landscape Change in the Marginal Grabens of Northern Ethiopia.” SINGAPORE JOURNAL OF TROPICAL GEOGRAPHY 40 (3): 476–495.
Vancouver
1.
Welemaram ZT, Nyssen J, Ghebreyohannes T, Tafere K, Zenebe A, Poesen J, et al. Transhumance as a driving force of landscape change in the marginal grabens of northern Ethiopia. SINGAPORE JOURNAL OF TROPICAL GEOGRAPHY. 2019;40(3):476–95.
IEEE
[1]
Z. T. Welemaram et al., “Transhumance as a driving force of landscape change in the marginal grabens of northern Ethiopia,” SINGAPORE JOURNAL OF TROPICAL GEOGRAPHY, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 476–495, 2019.
@article{8589528,
  abstract     = {Transhumance between the Afar lowlands and Tigray escarpments has been a common practice in northern Ethiopia. However, the impact of transhumance on landscape changes in the marginal grabens has not been significantly researched. Hence, this study aims to understand the process of transhumance and the linkages between social and biophysical aspects of the graben landscapes of northern Ethiopia. Google Earth (2010-2016) and Landsat Imageries (1995-2015) were used to analyse the spatio-temporal landscape changes. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was applied to measure the change in vegetation cover. Interview and Focus Group Discussions were used to collect perceptions of communities on transhumance and landscape change. The findings reveal that transhumance caused conflicts between the lowlanders and highlanders, which in turn led to displacement of communities. Consequently, the NDVI value of the abandoned settlement increased over time. Conversely, the analysis of Google Earth Imageries and NDVI values show that vegetation cover of the new settlement has decreased. Moreover, the NDVI values of the transhumance areas showed little increase due to the establishments of exclosures in the escarpments. The findings of this study can, therefore, be used to develop targeted interventions aimed at solving transhumance-induced conflicts, displacement of communities and conservation of natural resources.},
  author       = {Welemaram, Zbelo Tesfamariam and Nyssen, Jan and Ghebreyohannes, Tesfaalem and Tafere, Kelemework and Zenebe, Amanuel and Poesen, Jean and Deckers, Seppe and Van Eetvelde, Veerle},
  issn         = {0129-7619},
  journal      = {SINGAPORE JOURNAL OF TROPICAL GEOGRAPHY},
  keywords     = {Settlement,Landscape,Social conflict,Pastoralism,Agriculture,Ethiopia,LAND-COVER,WATER CONSERVATION,CULTURAL LANDSCAPE,TIGRAY,MANAGEMENT,AREAS,EXTENSIFICATION,DEFORESTATION,ABANDONMENT,EXCLOSURES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {476--495},
  title        = {Transhumance as a driving force of landscape change in the marginal grabens of northern Ethiopia},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sjtg.12278},
  volume       = {40},
  year         = {2019},
}

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