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Surgical repair of atrioventricular septal defects : incidence and mode of failure of the left atrioventricular valve

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Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to investigate the outcome of the left atrioventricular valve (LAVV) after repair of atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs) by analysing the mechanisms of LAW failure. METHODS: A retrospective investigation of 202 children with AVSD, operated on between 1992 and 2016, was performed. Analysis focused on freedom from reoperation for LAW dysfunction, with specific attention to the modes of failure. RESULTS: The population consisted of 129 (64%) patients with complete AVSD (cAVSD) and 73 (36%) patients with partial AVSD (pAVSD), corrected at a median age of 3.9 (interquartile range 3.4) months and 29.0 (interquartile range 90.4) months, respectively. Within a median follow-up period of 5.9 (interquartile range 12.6) years, 27 (13.4%) patients required reoperation for LAW failure, respectively, in 17 (13.2%) patients with cAVSD and 10 (13.9%) patients with pAVSD. Freedom from reoperation for LAW at 10 years was 87 +/- 4% for cAVSD and 87 +/- 5% for pAVSD (P & nbsp;= 0.789). The failure mode was predominantly technical in cAVSD (71% vs 20% in pAVSD), whereas residual anatomical anomalies entailed more frequently LAVV regurgitation (LAWR) in pAVSD (80% vs 29% in cAVSD) (P = 0.018). Cleft suture dehiscence (n = 8) and incomplete cleft closure (n = 6) were considered technical failures, whereas remnant distortions of the subvalvular apparatus (n = 9), small asymmetric bridging leaflet (n = 2), double orifice (n =1) and additional cleft (n =1) were considered anatomical lesions. The incidence of repair at the 1st reoperation was 92.6%. Eight patients needed a 2nd and 2 patients a 3rd repeat LAW operation. Five patients finally ended with a mechanical prosthesis. CONCLUSIONS: In the long term, patients with AVSD are still subject to LAW failure. Despite systematic cleft closure, patients with cAVSD develop LAW failure mainly because of a recurrent/residual deficit at the cleft, amenable to technical improvement. Patients with pAVSD need increased attention for additional anatomical features of the LAW at the time of primary repair.
Keywords
Atrioventricular septal defect, Valve dysfunction, Reoperation, LONG-TERM OUTCOMES, MITRAL REGURGITATION, REOPERATIONS, EXPERIENCE, FATE

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MLA
Bové, Thierry et al. “Surgical Repair of Atrioventricular Septal Defects : Incidence and Mode of Failure of the Left Atrioventricular Valve.” INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY 27.1 (2018): 42–47. Print.
APA
Bové, T., Strubbe, I., Vandekerckhove, K., Panzer, J., De Groote, K., De Wolf, D., & François, K. (2018). Surgical repair of atrioventricular septal defects : incidence and mode of failure of the left atrioventricular valve. INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY, 27(1), 42–47.
Chicago author-date
Bové, Thierry, Ine Strubbe, Kristof Vandekerckhove, Joseph Panzer, Katya De Groote, Daniël De Wolf, and Katrien François. 2018. “Surgical Repair of Atrioventricular Septal Defects : Incidence and Mode of Failure of the Left Atrioventricular Valve.” Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 27 (1): 42–47.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bové, Thierry, Ine Strubbe, Kristof Vandekerckhove, Joseph Panzer, Katya De Groote, Daniël De Wolf, and Katrien François. 2018. “Surgical Repair of Atrioventricular Septal Defects : Incidence and Mode of Failure of the Left Atrioventricular Valve.” Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 27 (1): 42–47.
Vancouver
1.
Bové T, Strubbe I, Vandekerckhove K, Panzer J, De Groote K, De Wolf D, et al. Surgical repair of atrioventricular septal defects : incidence and mode of failure of the left atrioventricular valve. INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY. 2018;27(1):42–7.
IEEE
[1]
T. Bové et al., “Surgical repair of atrioventricular septal defects : incidence and mode of failure of the left atrioventricular valve,” INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 2018.
@article{8588611,
  abstract     = {OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to investigate the outcome of the left atrioventricular valve (LAVV) after repair of atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs) by analysing the mechanisms of LAW failure. 
METHODS: A retrospective investigation of 202 children with AVSD, operated on between 1992 and 2016, was performed. Analysis focused on freedom from reoperation for LAW dysfunction, with specific attention to the modes of failure. 
RESULTS: The population consisted of 129 (64%) patients with complete AVSD (cAVSD) and 73 (36%) patients with partial AVSD (pAVSD), corrected at a median age of 3.9 (interquartile range 3.4) months and 29.0 (interquartile range 90.4) months, respectively. Within a median follow-up period of 5.9 (interquartile range 12.6) years, 27 (13.4%) patients required reoperation for LAW failure, respectively, in 17 (13.2%) patients with cAVSD and 10 (13.9%) patients with pAVSD. Freedom from reoperation for LAW at 10 years was 87 +/- 4% for cAVSD and 87 +/- 5% for pAVSD (P & nbsp;= 0.789). The failure mode was predominantly technical in cAVSD (71% vs 20% in pAVSD), whereas residual anatomical anomalies entailed more frequently LAVV regurgitation (LAWR) in pAVSD (80% vs 29% in cAVSD) (P = 0.018). Cleft suture dehiscence (n = 8) and incomplete cleft closure (n = 6) were considered technical failures, whereas remnant distortions of the subvalvular apparatus (n = 9), small asymmetric bridging leaflet (n = 2), double orifice (n =1) and additional cleft (n =1) were considered anatomical lesions. The incidence of repair at the 1st reoperation was 92.6%. Eight patients needed a 2nd and 2 patients a 3rd repeat LAW operation. Five patients finally ended with a mechanical prosthesis. 
CONCLUSIONS: In the long term, patients with AVSD are still subject to LAW failure. Despite systematic cleft closure, patients with cAVSD develop LAW failure mainly because of a recurrent/residual deficit at the cleft, amenable to technical improvement. Patients with pAVSD need increased attention for additional anatomical features of the LAW at the time of primary repair.},
  author       = {Bové, Thierry and Strubbe, Ine and Vandekerckhove, Kristof and Panzer, Joseph and De Groote, Katya and De Wolf, Daniël and François, Katrien},
  issn         = {1569-9293},
  journal      = {INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY},
  keywords     = {Atrioventricular septal defect,Valve dysfunction,Reoperation,LONG-TERM OUTCOMES,MITRAL REGURGITATION,REOPERATIONS,EXPERIENCE,FATE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {42--47},
  title        = {Surgical repair of atrioventricular septal defects : incidence and mode of failure of the left atrioventricular valve},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icvts/ivy023},
  volume       = {27},
  year         = {2018},
}

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