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Trickling filters following anaerobic sewage treatment : state of the art and perspectives

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Abstract
High-rate anaerobic treatment of sewage using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors is a consolidated technology in warm climate countries. Nevertheless, since anaerobic treatment only removes organic carbon, post-treatment is required to remove nitrogen, besides residual organic carbon. Trickling filters (TFs) constitute a cost-effective post-treatment option, assuring low sludge production, low operational costs and maintenance simplicity compared to other post-treatment technologies (e.g. activated sludge). This paper reviews the experience of the last 20 years of research, design and operation of UASB/TF systems. Three main topics are addressed: i) the development of trickling filters for UASB reactor effluent treatment, building on first experiences with TFs preceded by primary settlers; ii) the design criteria, performance and empirical models for predicting the efficiency of TFs post-UASB reactors; and iii) the future challenges associated with elimination of secondary settlers and nitrogen removal in sponge-bed trickling filters (SBTFs).
Keywords
HANGING SPONGE REACTOR, DOMESTIC WASTE-WATER, TREATING MUNICIPAL SEWAGE, UASB REACTOR, TREATMENT SYSTEM, SLUDGE BLANKET, DHS REACTOR, DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION, SMALL COMMUNITIES

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Chicago
Bressani Ribeiro, Thiago, PGS Almeida, Eveline Volcke, and CAL Chernicharo. 2018. “Trickling Filters Following Anaerobic Sewage Treatment : State of the Art and Perspectives.” Environmental Science-water Research & Technology 4 (11): 1721–1738.
APA
Bressani Ribeiro, T., Almeida, P., Volcke, E., & Chernicharo, C. (2018). Trickling filters following anaerobic sewage treatment : state of the art and perspectives. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE-WATER RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY, 4(11), 1721–1738.
Vancouver
1.
Bressani Ribeiro T, Almeida P, Volcke E, Chernicharo C. Trickling filters following anaerobic sewage treatment : state of the art and perspectives. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE-WATER RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY. 2018;4(11):1721–38.
MLA
Bressani Ribeiro, Thiago et al. “Trickling Filters Following Anaerobic Sewage Treatment : State of the Art and Perspectives.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE-WATER RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY 4.11 (2018): 1721–1738. Print.
@article{8588552,
  abstract     = {High-rate anaerobic treatment of sewage using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors is a consolidated technology in warm climate countries. Nevertheless, since anaerobic treatment only removes organic carbon, post-treatment is required to remove nitrogen, besides residual organic carbon. Trickling filters (TFs) constitute a cost-effective post-treatment option, assuring low sludge production, low operational costs and maintenance simplicity compared to other post-treatment technologies (e.g. activated sludge). This paper reviews the experience of the last 20 years of research, design and operation of UASB/TF systems. Three main topics are addressed: i) the development of trickling filters for UASB reactor effluent treatment, building on first experiences with TFs preceded by primary settlers; ii) the design criteria, performance and empirical models for predicting the efficiency of TFs post-UASB reactors; and iii) the future challenges associated with elimination of secondary settlers and nitrogen removal in sponge-bed trickling filters (SBTFs).},
  author       = {Bressani Ribeiro, Thiago and Almeida, PGS and Volcke, Eveline and Chernicharo, CAL},
  issn         = {2053-1400},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE-WATER RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY},
  keywords     = {HANGING SPONGE REACTOR,DOMESTIC WASTE-WATER,TREATING MUNICIPAL SEWAGE,UASB REACTOR,TREATMENT SYSTEM,SLUDGE BLANKET,DHS REACTOR,DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES,PERFORMANCE EVALUATION,SMALL COMMUNITIES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1721--1738},
  title        = {Trickling filters following anaerobic sewage treatment : state of the art and perspectives},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8ew00330k},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2018},
}

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