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Overyielding in young tree plantations is driven by local complementarity and selection effects related to shade tolerance

(2018) JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY. 106(3). p.1096-1105
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Abstract
Overyielding in mixed-species forests has been demonstrated in a vast body of literature, and the focus of functional biodiversity research is now shifting towards a mechanistic understanding of these observations. We explored diversity-productivity relationships at two sites of a large-scale tree diversity experiment, with harsh (Ged) and benign (Zed) environmental conditions for plantation establishment. Additive partitioning methodologies were adopted to detect phenomenological patterns in the productivity data, and the trait structure of mixed communities was used to advance insights into compositional effects. After 6years of plantation development, biomass productivity was significantly higher in mixtures compared to the monocultures of component species. We observed that processes operated through direct tree-tree interactions, as the diversity signal disappeared where trees in mixed stands were surrounded by conspecific neighbours only. This result is particularly relevant for mixed-species plantation systems, as trees are commonly planted in monospecific patches to simplify management. Partitioning unveiled strong selection effects at both plantation sites. However, at the harsh Ged-site this was caused by competitive dominance of species with fast young growth, whereas at the benign Zed-site, species with slow young growth improved their performances but not at the expense of others (i.e. trait-dependent complementarity). Species tolerance to shading is an influential trait for predicting biodiversity effects, with community-weighted means in shade tolerance mediating dominance effects (Ged) and functional diversity in shade tolerance mediating (trait-dependent) complementarity effects (Zed). Synthesis. This study highlights that biodiversity effects in young tree plantations could be explained by the functional composition of mixed communities, with a key role for species levels of shade tolerance. As contrasting results between plantation sites were observed, future research should target the context-dependency of diversity-productivity relationships.
Keywords
biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, biodiversity partitioning, functional composition, functional traits, mixed forest, neighbourhood diversity, productivity, DIVERSITY-PRODUCTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS, PLANT-COMMUNITIES, BIODIVERSITY EXPERIMENTS, FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY, FOREST PLANTATIONS, ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION, SPECIES-DIVERSITY, COMPETITION, TRAITS, TEMPERATE

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Chicago
Van de Peer, Thomas, Kris Verheyen, Quentin Ponette, Nuri Nurlaila Setiawan, and Bart Muys. 2018. “Overyielding in Young Tree Plantations Is Driven by Local Complementarity and Selection Effects Related to Shade Tolerance.” Journal of Ecology 106 (3): 1096–1105.
APA
Van de Peer, T., Verheyen, K., Ponette, Q., Setiawan, N. N., & Muys, B. (2018). Overyielding in young tree plantations is driven by local complementarity and selection effects related to shade tolerance. JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, 106(3), 1096–1105.
Vancouver
1.
Van de Peer T, Verheyen K, Ponette Q, Setiawan NN, Muys B. Overyielding in young tree plantations is driven by local complementarity and selection effects related to shade tolerance. JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY. 2018;106(3):1096–105.
MLA
Van de Peer, Thomas et al. “Overyielding in Young Tree Plantations Is Driven by Local Complementarity and Selection Effects Related to Shade Tolerance.” JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY 106.3 (2018): 1096–1105. Print.
@article{8587705,
  abstract     = {Overyielding in mixed-species forests has been demonstrated in a vast body of literature, and the focus of functional biodiversity research is now shifting towards a mechanistic understanding of these observations. We explored diversity-productivity relationships at two sites of a large-scale tree diversity experiment, with harsh (Ged) and benign (Zed) environmental conditions for plantation establishment. Additive partitioning methodologies were adopted to detect phenomenological patterns in the productivity data, and the trait structure of mixed communities was used to advance insights into compositional effects. 
After 6years of plantation development, biomass productivity was significantly higher in mixtures compared to the monocultures of component species. We observed that processes operated through direct tree-tree interactions, as the diversity signal disappeared where trees in mixed stands were surrounded by conspecific neighbours only. This result is particularly relevant for mixed-species plantation systems, as trees are commonly planted in monospecific patches to simplify management. Partitioning unveiled strong selection effects at both plantation sites. However, at the harsh Ged-site this was caused by competitive dominance of species with fast young growth, whereas at the benign Zed-site, species with slow young growth improved their performances but not at the expense of others (i.e. trait-dependent complementarity). Species tolerance to shading is an influential trait for predicting biodiversity effects, with community-weighted means in shade tolerance mediating dominance effects (Ged) and functional diversity in shade tolerance mediating (trait-dependent) complementarity effects (Zed). Synthesis. This study highlights that biodiversity effects in young tree plantations could be explained by the functional composition of mixed communities, with a key role for species levels of shade tolerance. As contrasting results between plantation sites were observed, future research should target the context-dependency of diversity-productivity relationships.},
  author       = {Van de Peer, Thomas and Verheyen, Kris and Ponette, Quentin and Setiawan, Nuri Nurlaila and Muys, Bart},
  issn         = {0022-0477},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {1096--1105},
  title        = {Overyielding in young tree plantations is driven by local complementarity and selection effects related to shade tolerance},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12839},
  volume       = {106},
  year         = {2018},
}

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