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B-mode and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the mammary gland during the estrous cycle of dogs

Katrien Vanderperren (UGent) , Jimmy Saunders (UGent) , Elke Van der Vekens (UGent) , Eline Wydooghe (UGent) , Hilde De Rooster (UGent) , Luc Duchateau (UGent) and Emmelie Stock (UGent)
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Abstract
Pathology of the mammary gland is a common health issue in dogs and includes neoplasia, cysts, inflammation and infection. The use of the B-mode (US) and contrast-enhanced (CEUS) ultrasonography may aid in the diagnosis. Previous studies are currently lacking of the ultrasonic images of the mammary gland of healthy bitches in different stages of the estrous cycle and associated normal blood perfusion patterns. The purpose, therefore, was to describe the normal B-mode US and CEUS images of the mammary gland and inguinal lymph node, in six intact female beagles during five different stages of the estrous cycle (proestrus, estrus, early and late diestrus and anestrus). Within the same stage of the estrous cycle, the size (thickness) of the caudal mammary glands increased. During early and late diestrus, all mammary glands increased in thickness and had an increased heterogeneous B-mode ultrasonic appearance. The mammary glands had a heterogeneous, disorganized perfusion pattern when assessed using CEUS. For the cranial abdominal mammary gland, the area under the curve and the mean transit time increased between estrus and late diestrus and decreased between late diestrus and anestrus. For the inguinal mammary gland, only the time to peak was longer during the periods of anestrus compared to estrus whereas all the other contrast parameters did not change during the estrous cycle. In conclusion, hormonal influences cause major changes in the size, appearance and blood perfusion of mammary glands during the estrous cycle and should be considered when evaluating pathological changes of mammary glands.
Keywords
Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, Ultrasonography, Mammary gland, Dogs, POWER DOPPLER, LYMPH-NODES, TUMORS, HEALTHY, BENIGN, DIFFERENTIATION, SEDATION

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Chicago
Vanderperren, Katrien, Jimmy Saunders, Elke Van der Vekens, Eline Wydooghe, Hilde De Rooster, Luc Duchateau, and Emmelie Stock. 2018. “B-mode and Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography of the Mammary Gland During the Estrous Cycle of Dogs.” Animal Reproduction Science 199: 15–23.
APA
Vanderperren, K., Saunders, J., Van der Vekens, E., Wydooghe, E., De Rooster, H., Duchateau, L., & Stock, E. (2018). B-mode and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the mammary gland during the estrous cycle of dogs. ANIMAL REPRODUCTION SCIENCE, 199, 15–23.
Vancouver
1.
Vanderperren K, Saunders J, Van der Vekens E, Wydooghe E, De Rooster H, Duchateau L, et al. B-mode and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the mammary gland during the estrous cycle of dogs. ANIMAL REPRODUCTION SCIENCE. 2018;199:15–23.
MLA
Vanderperren, Katrien, Jimmy Saunders, Elke Van der Vekens, et al. “B-mode and Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography of the Mammary Gland During the Estrous Cycle of Dogs.” ANIMAL REPRODUCTION SCIENCE 199 (2018): 15–23. Print.
@article{8587375,
  abstract     = {Pathology of the mammary gland is a common health issue in dogs and includes neoplasia, cysts, inflammation and infection. The use of the B-mode (US) and contrast-enhanced (CEUS) ultrasonography may aid in the diagnosis. Previous studies are currently lacking of the ultrasonic images of the mammary gland of healthy bitches in different stages of the estrous cycle and associated normal blood perfusion patterns. The purpose, therefore, was to describe the normal B-mode US and CEUS images of the mammary gland and inguinal lymph node, in six intact female beagles during five different stages of the estrous cycle (proestrus, estrus, early and late diestrus and anestrus). Within the same stage of the estrous cycle, the size (thickness) of the caudal mammary glands increased. During early and late diestrus, all mammary glands increased in thickness and had an increased heterogeneous B-mode ultrasonic appearance. The mammary glands had a heterogeneous, disorganized perfusion pattern when assessed using CEUS. For the cranial abdominal mammary gland, the area under the curve and the mean transit time increased between estrus and late diestrus and decreased between late diestrus and anestrus. For the inguinal mammary gland, only the time to peak was longer during the periods of anestrus compared to estrus whereas all the other contrast parameters did not change during the estrous cycle. In conclusion, hormonal influences cause major changes in the size, appearance and blood perfusion of mammary glands during the estrous cycle and should be considered when evaluating pathological changes of mammary glands.},
  author       = {Vanderperren, Katrien and Saunders, Jimmy and Van der Vekens, Elke and Wydooghe, Eline and De Rooster, Hilde and Duchateau, Luc and Stock, Emmelie},
  issn         = {0378-4320},
  journal      = {ANIMAL REPRODUCTION SCIENCE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {15--23},
  title        = {B-mode and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the mammary gland during the estrous cycle of dogs},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.08.036},
  volume       = {199},
  year         = {2018},
}

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