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Study on mycotoxin contamination in South African food spices

(2018) WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL. 11(3). p.401-409
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Abstract
A validated QuEChERS-based method was used to investigate the occurrence of mycotoxins in 70 South African food spices [coarse chilli (n=14), ground chilli (n=4), paprika (n=7), ginger (n=5), chicken spices (n=8), onion spices (n=8), beef spices (n=5), Mexican chilli (n=9), vegetable spice (n=1), fruit chutney spices (n=4), and cheese spices (n=5)]. Mycotoxins were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results revealed that 40% of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B-1, aflatoxin G(1), ochratoxin A, sterigmatocystin, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fumonisin B-1, fumonisin B-2 and/or roquefortine C. The contamination levels for aflatoxin B-1 ranged from 3-19 mu g/kg; aflatoxin G(1), 10-11 mu g/kg; ochratoxin A, 4-20 mu g/kg; fumonisin B-1 104-591 mu g/kg; fumonisin B-2, 64-5,897 mu g/kg; sterigmatocystin, 11-18 mu g/kg; 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 42-46 mu g/kg; and roquefortine C, 17-57 mu g/kg. Mycotoxins co-occurred in 11% of the spice samples. Amongst the samples analysed in this study, paprika had the highest positives (100%) for the determined mycotoxins. Previous reports on mycotoxin contamination in spices, focused on the incidence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, but not on the multi-mycotoxin profile in South African spices. This study thus provides a comprehensive assessment of mycotoxin contamination of spices in South Africa.
Keywords
spices, mycotoxins, QuEChERS, LC-MS/MS, South Africa, AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION, OCHRATOXIN-A, BLACK PEPPER, MULTIPLE MYCOTOXINS, ASPERGILLUS-NIGER, CAPSICUM POWDER, RED-PEPPER, SRI-LANKA, COOCCURRENCE, HERBS

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Chicago
Motloung, Lerato, Sarah De Saeger, Marthe De Boevre, Christel Detavernier, Kris Audenaert, OA Adebo, and PB Njobeh. 2018. “Study on Mycotoxin Contamination in South African Food Spices.” World Mycotoxin Journal 11 (3): 401–409.
APA
Motloung, L., De Saeger, S., De Boevre, M., Detavernier, C., Audenaert, K., Adebo, O., & Njobeh, P. (2018). Study on mycotoxin contamination in South African food spices. WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL, 11(3), 401–409.
Vancouver
1.
Motloung L, De Saeger S, De Boevre M, Detavernier C, Audenaert K, Adebo O, et al. Study on mycotoxin contamination in South African food spices. WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL. 2018;11(3):401–9.
MLA
Motloung, Lerato, Sarah De Saeger, Marthe De Boevre, et al. “Study on Mycotoxin Contamination in South African Food Spices.” WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL 11.3 (2018): 401–409. Print.
@article{8587108,
  abstract     = {A validated QuEChERS-based method was used to investigate the occurrence of mycotoxins in 70 South African food spices [coarse chilli (n=14), ground chilli (n=4), paprika (n=7), ginger (n=5), chicken spices (n=8), onion spices (n=8), beef spices (n=5), Mexican chilli (n=9), vegetable spice (n=1), fruit chutney spices (n=4), and cheese spices (n=5)]. Mycotoxins were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results revealed that 40\% of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B-1, aflatoxin G(1), ochratoxin A, sterigmatocystin, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fumonisin B-1, fumonisin B-2 and/or roquefortine C. The contamination levels for aflatoxin B-1 ranged from 3-19 mu g/kg; aflatoxin G(1), 10-11 mu g/kg; ochratoxin A, 4-20 mu g/kg; fumonisin B-1 104-591 mu g/kg; fumonisin B-2, 64-5,897 mu g/kg; sterigmatocystin, 11-18 mu g/kg; 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 42-46 mu g/kg; and roquefortine C, 17-57 mu g/kg. Mycotoxins co-occurred in 11\% of the spice samples. Amongst the samples analysed in this study, paprika had the highest positives (100\%) for the determined mycotoxins. Previous reports on mycotoxin contamination in spices, focused on the incidence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, but not on the multi-mycotoxin profile in South African spices. This study thus provides a comprehensive assessment of mycotoxin contamination of spices in South Africa.},
  author       = {Motloung, Lerato and De Saeger, Sarah and De Boevre, Marthe and Detavernier, Christel and Audenaert, Kris and Adebo, OA and Njobeh, PB},
  issn         = {1875-0710},
  journal      = {WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL},
  keyword      = {spices,mycotoxins,QuEChERS,LC-MS/MS,South Africa,AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION,OCHRATOXIN-A,BLACK PEPPER,MULTIPLE MYCOTOXINS,ASPERGILLUS-NIGER,CAPSICUM POWDER,RED-PEPPER,SRI-LANKA,COOCCURRENCE,HERBS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {401--409},
  title        = {Study on mycotoxin contamination in South African food spices},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3920/WMJ2017.2191},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {2018},
}

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