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Evaluation of vitamin K status and rationale for vitamin K supplementation in dialysis patients.

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Abstract
The cardinal biological role of vitamin K is to act as cofactor for the carboxylation of a number of vitamin K-dependent proteins, some of which are essential for coagulation, bone formation and prevention of vascular calcification. Functional vitamin K deficiency is common and severe among dialysis patients and has garnered attention as a modifiable risk factor in this population. However, no single biochemical parameter can adequately assess vitamin K status. For each biological function of vitamin K, the degree of carboxylation of the relevant vitamin K-dependent protein most accurately reflects vitamin K status. Dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP) is the best biomarker for vascular vitamin K status when cardiovascular endpoints are studied. Dp-ucMGP levels are severely elevated in haemodialysis patients and correlate with markers of vascular calcification and mortality in some but not all studies. The aetiology of vitamin K deficiency in haemodialysis is multifactorial, including deficient intake, uraemic inhibition of the vitamin K cycle and possibly interference of vitamin K absorption by phosphate binders. The optimal vitamin K species, dose and duration of supplementation to correct vitamin K status in dialysis patients are unknown. Dp-ucMGP levels dose-proportionally decrease with supraphysiological vitamin K2 supplementation, but do not normalize even with the highest doses. In the general population, long-term vitamin K1 or K2 supplementation has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, bone density and fracture risk, and insulin resistance, although some studies reported negative results. In haemodialysis patients, several trials on the effects of vitamin K on surrogate markers of vascular calcification are currently ongoing.

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MLA
Caluwé, Rogier, Francis Verbeke, and An S Devriese. “Evaluation of Vitamin K Status and Rationale for Vitamin K Supplementation in Dialysis Patients.” NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION (2019): n. pag. Print.
APA
Caluwé, R., Verbeke, F., & Devriese, A. S. (2019). Evaluation of vitamin K status and rationale for vitamin K supplementation in dialysis patients. NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION.
Chicago author-date
Caluwé, Rogier, Francis Verbeke, and An S Devriese. 2019. “Evaluation of Vitamin K Status and Rationale for Vitamin K Supplementation in Dialysis Patients.” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Caluwé, Rogier, Francis Verbeke, and An S Devriese. 2019. “Evaluation of Vitamin K Status and Rationale for Vitamin K Supplementation in Dialysis Patients.” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation.
Vancouver
1.
Caluwé R, Verbeke F, Devriese AS. Evaluation of vitamin K status and rationale for vitamin K supplementation in dialysis patients. NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION. 2019;
IEEE
[1]
R. Caluwé, F. Verbeke, and A. S. Devriese, “Evaluation of vitamin K status and rationale for vitamin K supplementation in dialysis patients.,” NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION, 2019.
@article{8587008,
  abstract     = {The cardinal biological role of vitamin K is to act as cofactor for the carboxylation of a number of vitamin K-dependent proteins, some of which are essential for coagulation, bone formation and prevention of vascular calcification. Functional vitamin K deficiency is common and severe among dialysis patients and has garnered attention as a modifiable risk factor in this population. However, no single biochemical parameter can adequately assess vitamin K status. For each biological function of vitamin K, the degree of carboxylation of the relevant vitamin K-dependent protein most accurately reflects vitamin K status. Dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP) is the best biomarker for vascular vitamin K status when cardiovascular endpoints are studied. Dp-ucMGP levels are severely elevated in haemodialysis patients and correlate with markers of vascular calcification and mortality in some but not all studies. The aetiology of vitamin K deficiency in haemodialysis is multifactorial, including deficient intake, uraemic inhibition of the vitamin K cycle and possibly interference of vitamin K absorption by phosphate binders. The optimal vitamin K species, dose and duration of supplementation to correct vitamin K status in dialysis patients are unknown. Dp-ucMGP levels dose-proportionally decrease with supraphysiological vitamin K2 supplementation, but do not normalize even with the highest doses. In the general population, long-term vitamin K1 or K2 supplementation has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, bone density and fracture risk, and insulin resistance, although some studies reported negative results. In haemodialysis patients, several trials on the effects of vitamin K on surrogate markers of vascular calcification are currently ongoing.},
  author       = {Caluwé, Rogier and Verbeke, Francis and Devriese, An S},
  issn         = {0931-0509},
  journal      = {NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION},
  language     = {eng},
  title        = {Evaluation of vitamin K status and rationale for vitamin K supplementation in dialysis patients.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfy373},
  year         = {2019},
}

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