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An international analysis of dialysis services reimbursement

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Abstract
Background and objectives: The prevalence of patients with ESKD who receive extracorporeal kidney replacement therapy is rising worldwide. We compared government reimbursement for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis worldwide, assessed the effect on the government health care budget, and discussed strategies to reduce the cost of kidney replacement therapy. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Cross-sectional global survey of nephrologists in 90 countries to assess reimbursement for dialysis, number of patients receiving hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, and measures to prevent development or progression of CKD, conducted online July to December of 2016. Results: Of the 90 survey respondents, governments from 81 countries (90%) provided reimbursement for maintenance dialysis. The prevalence of patients per million population being treated with long-term dialysis in low- and middle-income countries increased linearly with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP per capita), but was substantially lower in these countries compared with high-income countries where we did not observe an higher prevalence with higher GDP per capita. The absolute expenditure for dialysis by national governments showed a positive association with GDP per capita, but the percent of total health care budget spent on dialysis showed a negative association. The percentage of patients on peritoneal dialysis was low, even in countries where peritoneal dialysis is better reimbursed than hemodialysis. The so-called peritoneal dialysis-first policy without financial incentive seems to be effective in increasing the utilization of peritoneal dialysis. Few countries actively provide CKD prevention. Conclusions: In low- and middle-income countries, reimbursement of dialysis is insufficient to treat all patients with ESKD and has a disproportionately high effect on public health expenditure. Current reimbursement policies favor conventional in-center hemodialysis.
Keywords
CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE, PERITONEAL-DIALYSIS, COST-EFFECTIVENESS, RENAL REPLACEMENT, HEMODIALYSIS, NEPHROLOGY, ECONOMICS, OUTCOMES, WORLD, CARE

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Chicago
van der Tol, Arjan, Norbert Lameire, Rachael L Morton, Wim Van Biesen, and Raymond Vanholder. 2019. “An International Analysis of Dialysis Services Reimbursement.” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 14 (1): 84–93.
APA
van der Tol, A., Lameire, N., Morton, R. L., Van Biesen, W., & Vanholder, R. (2019). An international analysis of dialysis services reimbursement. CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY, 14(1), 84–93.
Vancouver
1.
van der Tol A, Lameire N, Morton RL, Van Biesen W, Vanholder R. An international analysis of dialysis services reimbursement. CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY. 2019;14(1):84–93.
MLA
van der Tol, Arjan et al. “An International Analysis of Dialysis Services Reimbursement.” CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY 14.1 (2019): 84–93. Print.
@article{8586991,
  abstract     = {Background and objectives: The prevalence of patients with ESKD who receive extracorporeal kidney replacement therapy is rising worldwide. We compared government reimbursement for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis worldwide, assessed the effect on the government health care budget, and discussed strategies to reduce the cost of kidney replacement therapy. 
Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Cross-sectional global survey of nephrologists in 90 countries to assess reimbursement for dialysis, number of patients receiving hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, and measures to prevent development or progression of CKD, conducted online July to December of 2016. 
Results: Of the 90 survey respondents, governments from 81 countries (90%) provided reimbursement for maintenance dialysis. The prevalence of patients per million population being treated with long-term dialysis in low- and middle-income countries increased linearly with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP per capita), but was substantially lower in these countries compared with high-income countries where we did not observe an higher prevalence with higher GDP per capita. The absolute expenditure for dialysis by national governments showed a positive association with GDP per capita, but the percent of total health care budget spent on dialysis showed a negative association. The percentage of patients on peritoneal dialysis was low, even in countries where peritoneal dialysis is better reimbursed than hemodialysis. The so-called peritoneal dialysis-first policy without financial incentive seems to be effective in increasing the utilization of peritoneal dialysis. Few countries actively provide CKD prevention. 
Conclusions: In low- and middle-income countries, reimbursement of dialysis is insufficient to treat all patients with ESKD and has a disproportionately high effect on public health expenditure. Current reimbursement policies favor conventional in-center hemodialysis.},
  author       = {van der Tol, Arjan and Lameire, Norbert and Morton, Rachael L and Van Biesen, Wim and Vanholder, Raymond},
  issn         = {1555-9041},
  journal      = {CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY},
  keywords     = {CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE,PERITONEAL-DIALYSIS,COST-EFFECTIVENESS,RENAL REPLACEMENT,HEMODIALYSIS,NEPHROLOGY,ECONOMICS,OUTCOMES,WORLD,CARE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {84--93},
  title        = {An international analysis of dialysis services reimbursement},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.08150718},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2019},
}

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