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The impact of paratonia on fine and gross motor function in older adults with mild and moderate dementia

Bieke Van Deun (UGent) , Nele Van Den Noortgate (UGent) , Anke Van Bladel (UGent) , Tanneke Palmans (UGent) and Dirk Cambier (UGent)
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Abstract
Background: Dementia is associated with impairment in gait, balance, and fine motor function. Paratonia, a form of hypertonia, is often present in severe dementia. However, little is known about muscle tone in early dementia, and the eventual relation between muscle tone abnormalities and changes in fine and gross motor function. Methods: Three groups of participants were included in the study: healthy controls (n=60), participants with mild dementia (MiD) (n=31), and participants with moderate dementia (n=31). Measurements of fine motricity (Purdue pegboard test), balance and gait (Dynaport Hybrid), the presence of paratonia (PAI), and muscle tone measurements (MyotonPRO) were performed. Results: Paratonia was present in 42% of participants with MiD and in 58% of participants with moderate dementia. Participants with paratonia had lower Purdue Pegboard scores (P<0.001), lower balance coordination in semitandem stance (P<0.001), lower walking speed at a fast pace (P=0.001), and lower step regularity at normal (P=0.025) and fast (P<0.001) pace. Conclusions: Paratonia is already present in participants with MiD and is associated with a decline in both fine and gross motor performance. Early detection of paratonia might be helpful to detect persons at higher risk of motor deterioration and falls.
Keywords
dementia, paratonia, gait, balance, fine motor function, muscle tone, COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT, ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE, GAIT, DECLINE, WALKING, BALANCE, RISK

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Chicago
Van Deun, Bieke, Nele Van Den Noortgate, Anke Van Bladel, Tanneke Palmans, and Dirk Cambier. 2019. “The Impact of Paratonia on Fine and Gross Motor Function in Older Adults with Mild and Moderate Dementia.” Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders 33 (1): 54–61.
APA
Van Deun, B., Van Den Noortgate, N., Van Bladel, A., Palmans, T., & Cambier, D. (2019). The impact of paratonia on fine and gross motor function in older adults with mild and moderate dementia. ALZHEIMER DISEASE & ASSOCIATED DISORDERS, 33(1), 54–61.
Vancouver
1.
Van Deun B, Van Den Noortgate N, Van Bladel A, Palmans T, Cambier D. The impact of paratonia on fine and gross motor function in older adults with mild and moderate dementia. ALZHEIMER DISEASE & ASSOCIATED DISORDERS. 2019;33(1):54–61.
MLA
Van Deun, Bieke et al. “The Impact of Paratonia on Fine and Gross Motor Function in Older Adults with Mild and Moderate Dementia.” ALZHEIMER DISEASE & ASSOCIATED DISORDERS 33.1 (2019): 54–61. Print.
@article{8584349,
  abstract     = {Background: Dementia is associated with impairment in gait, balance, and fine motor function. Paratonia, a form of hypertonia, is often present in severe dementia. However, little is known about muscle tone in early dementia, and the eventual relation between muscle tone abnormalities and changes in fine and gross motor function. 
Methods: Three groups of participants were included in the study: healthy controls (n=60), participants with mild dementia (MiD) (n=31), and participants with moderate dementia (n=31). Measurements of fine motricity (Purdue pegboard test), balance and gait (Dynaport Hybrid), the presence of paratonia (PAI), and muscle tone measurements (MyotonPRO) were performed. 
Results: Paratonia was present in 42% of participants with MiD and in 58% of participants with moderate dementia. Participants with paratonia had lower Purdue Pegboard scores (P<0.001), lower balance coordination in semitandem stance (P<0.001), lower walking speed at a fast pace (P=0.001), and lower step regularity at normal (P=0.025) and fast (P<0.001) pace. 
Conclusions: Paratonia is already present in participants with MiD and is associated with a decline in both fine and gross motor performance. Early detection of paratonia might be helpful to detect persons at higher risk of motor deterioration and falls.},
  author       = {Van Deun, Bieke and Van Den Noortgate, Nele and Van Bladel, Anke and Palmans, Tanneke and Cambier, Dirk},
  issn         = {0893-0341},
  journal      = {ALZHEIMER DISEASE & ASSOCIATED DISORDERS},
  keywords     = {dementia,paratonia,gait,balance,fine motor function,muscle tone,COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT,ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE,GAIT,DECLINE,WALKING,BALANCE,RISK},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {54--61},
  title        = {The impact of paratonia on fine and gross motor function in older adults with mild and moderate dementia},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WAD.0000000000000278},
  volume       = {33},
  year         = {2019},
}

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