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ZFOURGE : using composite spectral energy distributions to characterize galaxy populations at 1 < z < 4

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Abstract
We investigate the properties of galaxies as they shut off star formation over the 4 billion years surrounding peak cosmic star formation. To do this, we categorize similar to 7000 galaxies from 1 < z < 4 into 90 groups based on the shape of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and build composite SEDs with R similar to 50 resolution. These composite SEDs show a variety of spectral shapes and also show trends in parameters such as color, mass, star formation rate, and emission-line equivalent width. Using emission-line equivalent widths and strength of the 4000 angstrom break, D(4000), we categorize the composite SEDs into five classes: extreme emission line, star-forming, transitioning, post-starburst, and quiescent galaxies. The transitioning population of galaxies shows modest H alpha emission (EWREST similar to 40 angstrom) compared to more typical star-forming composite SEDs at log(10)(M/M-circle dot) similar to 10.5 (EWREST similar to 80 A). Together with their smaller sizes (3 kpc vs. 4 kpc) and higher Sersic indices (2.7 vs. 1.5), this indicates that morphological changes initiate before the cessation of star formation. The transitional group shows a strong increase of over 1 dex in number density from z similar to 3 to z similar to 1, similar to the growth in the quiescent population, while post-starburst galaxies become rarer at z less than or similar to 1.5. We calculate average quenching timescales of 1.6 Gyr at z similar to 1.5 and 0.9 Gyr at z similar to 2.5 and conclude that a fast-quenching mechanism producing post-starbursts dominated the quenching of galaxies at early times, while a slower process has become more common since z similar to 2.
Keywords
STAR-FORMING GALAXIES, POST-STARBURST GALAXIES, LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES, DIGITAL SKY SURVEY, HUBBLE-DEEP-FIELD, COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAM, EVOLUTION SURVEY COSMOS, STELLAR MASS, O III, MULTIWAVELENGTH PHOTOMETRY, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: high-redshift

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MLA
Forrest, Ben, et al. “ZFOURGE : Using Composite Spectral Energy Distributions to Characterize Galaxy Populations at 1 < z < 4.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 863, no. 2, 2018, doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aad232.
APA
Forrest, B., Tran, K.-V. H., Broussard, A., Cohn, J. H., Kennicutt, R. C., Jr, Papovich, C., … Straatman, C. (2018). ZFOURGE : using composite spectral energy distributions to characterize galaxy populations at 1 < z < 4. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 863(2). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aad232
Chicago author-date
Forrest, Ben, Kim-Vy H Tran, Adam Broussard, Jonathan H Cohn, Robert C Kennicutt, Jr, Casey Papovich, Rebecca Allen, et al. 2018. “ZFOURGE : Using Composite Spectral Energy Distributions to Characterize Galaxy Populations at 1 < z < 4.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 863 (2). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aad232.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Forrest, Ben, Kim-Vy H Tran, Adam Broussard, Jonathan H Cohn, Robert C Kennicutt, Jr, Casey Papovich, Rebecca Allen, Michael Cowley, Karl Glazebrook, Glenn G Kacprzak, Lalitwadee Kawinwanichakij, Themiya Nanayakkara, Brett Salmon, Lee R Spitler, and Caroline Straatman. 2018. “ZFOURGE : Using Composite Spectral Energy Distributions to Characterize Galaxy Populations at 1 < z < 4.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 863 (2). doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aad232.
Vancouver
1.
Forrest B, Tran K-VH, Broussard A, Cohn JH, Kennicutt, RC Jr, Papovich C, et al. ZFOURGE : using composite spectral energy distributions to characterize galaxy populations at 1 < z < 4. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2018;863(2).
IEEE
[1]
B. Forrest et al., “ZFOURGE : using composite spectral energy distributions to characterize galaxy populations at 1 < z < 4,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 863, no. 2, 2018.
@article{8582589,
  abstract     = {We investigate the properties of galaxies as they shut off star formation over the 4 billion years surrounding peak cosmic star formation. To do this, we categorize similar to 7000 galaxies from 1 < z < 4 into 90 groups based on the shape of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and build composite SEDs with R similar to 50 resolution. These composite SEDs show a variety of spectral shapes and also show trends in parameters such as color, mass, star formation rate, and emission-line equivalent width. Using emission-line equivalent widths and strength of the 4000 angstrom break, D(4000), we categorize the composite SEDs into five classes: extreme emission line, star-forming, transitioning, post-starburst, and quiescent galaxies. The transitioning population of galaxies shows modest H alpha emission (EWREST similar to 40 angstrom) compared to more typical star-forming composite SEDs at log(10)(M/M-circle dot) similar to 10.5 (EWREST similar to 80 A). Together with their smaller sizes (3 kpc vs. 4 kpc) and higher Sersic indices (2.7 vs. 1.5), this indicates that morphological changes initiate before the cessation of star formation. The transitional group shows a strong increase of over 1 dex in number density from z similar to 3 to z similar to 1, similar to the growth in the quiescent population, while post-starburst galaxies become rarer at z less than or similar to 1.5. We calculate average quenching timescales of 1.6 Gyr at z similar to 1.5 and 0.9 Gyr at z similar to 2.5 and conclude that a fast-quenching mechanism producing post-starbursts dominated the quenching of galaxies at early times, while a slower process has become more common since z similar to 2.},
  articleno    = {131},
  author       = {Forrest, Ben and Tran, Kim-Vy H and Broussard, Adam and Cohn, Jonathan H and Kennicutt,, Robert C, Jr and Papovich, Casey and Allen, Rebecca and Cowley, Michael and Glazebrook, Karl and Kacprzak, Glenn G and Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee and Nanayakkara, Themiya and Salmon, Brett and Spitler, Lee R and Straatman, Caroline},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {STAR-FORMING GALAXIES,POST-STARBURST GALAXIES,LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES,DIGITAL SKY SURVEY,HUBBLE-DEEP-FIELD,COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAM,EVOLUTION SURVEY COSMOS,STELLAR MASS,O III,MULTIWAVELENGTH PHOTOMETRY,galaxies: evolution,galaxies: high-redshift},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {25},
  title        = {ZFOURGE : using composite spectral energy distributions to characterize galaxy populations at 1 < z < 4},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aad232},
  volume       = {863},
  year         = {2018},
}

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