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Treating potassium disturbances : kill the killers but avoid overkill

Raymond Vanholder (UGent) , Wim Van Biesen (UGent) and Evi Nagler (UGent)
(2019) ACTA CLINICA BELGICA. 74(4). p.215-228
Author
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Abstract
Objectives: In this publication, we review the definitions, symptoms, causes, differential diagnoses and therapies of hypokalemia and hyperkalemia. Methods: Comprehensive tables and diagnostic algorithms are provided when appropriate. Results and Conclusions: Although both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia may be life-threatening, this is essentially the case with severe changes (serum potassium 6.5 mmol/L), the presence of symptoms or electrocardiographic deviations, the association with aggravating factors (e.g. digitalis intake) and/or rapid acute changes. Only these truly need an emergency therapeutic approach. In all other cases, a careful consideration of the causes and their correction should prevail over additional approaches to modify serum potassium concentration. Although most therapeutic approaches to both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia have been well established since many years, recently two new intestinal potassium binders have been introduced on the market. It remains to be elucidated whether these drugs truly have an additional role on top of the existing treatments.
Keywords
Potassium, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, SODIUM POLYSTYRENE SULFONATE, CLINICAL-PRACTICE GUIDELINE, SERUM POTASSIUM, ZIRCONIUM CYCLOSILICATE, DIALYSIS OUTCOMES, KIDNEY-DISEASE, SUDDEN-DEATH, HYPERKALEMIA, PATIROMER, HYPOKALEMIA

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Chicago
Vanholder, Raymond, Wim Van Biesen, and Evi Nagler. 2019. “Treating Potassium Disturbances : Kill the Killers but Avoid Overkill.” Acta Clinica Belgica 74 (4): 215–228.
APA
Vanholder, R., Van Biesen, W., & Nagler, E. (2019). Treating potassium disturbances : kill the killers but avoid overkill. ACTA CLINICA BELGICA, 74(4), 215–228.
Vancouver
1.
Vanholder R, Van Biesen W, Nagler E. Treating potassium disturbances : kill the killers but avoid overkill. ACTA CLINICA BELGICA. 2019;74(4):215–28.
MLA
Vanholder, Raymond, Wim Van Biesen, and Evi Nagler. “Treating Potassium Disturbances : Kill the Killers but Avoid Overkill.” ACTA CLINICA BELGICA 74.4 (2019): 215–228. Print.
@article{8582393,
  abstract     = {Objectives: In this publication, we review the definitions, symptoms, causes, differential diagnoses and therapies of hypokalemia and hyperkalemia. Methods: Comprehensive tables and diagnostic algorithms are provided when appropriate. Results and Conclusions: Although both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia may be life-threatening, this is essentially the case with severe changes (serum potassium 6.5 mmol/L), the presence of symptoms or electrocardiographic deviations, the association with aggravating factors (e.g. digitalis intake) and/or rapid acute changes. Only these truly need an emergency therapeutic approach. In all other cases, a careful consideration of the causes and their correction should prevail over additional approaches to modify serum potassium concentration. Although most therapeutic approaches to both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia have been well established since many years, recently two new intestinal potassium binders have been introduced on the market. It remains to be elucidated whether these drugs truly have an additional role on top of the existing treatments.},
  author       = {Vanholder, Raymond and Van Biesen, Wim and Nagler, Evi},
  issn         = {1784-3286},
  journal      = {ACTA CLINICA BELGICA},
  keywords     = {Potassium,hyperkalemia,hypokalemia,SODIUM POLYSTYRENE SULFONATE,CLINICAL-PRACTICE GUIDELINE,SERUM POTASSIUM,ZIRCONIUM CYCLOSILICATE,DIALYSIS OUTCOMES,KIDNEY-DISEASE,SUDDEN-DEATH,HYPERKALEMIA,PATIROMER,HYPOKALEMIA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {215--228},
  title        = {Treating potassium disturbances : kill the killers but avoid overkill},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17843286.2018.1531206},
  volume       = {74},
  year         = {2019},
}

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