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Renal perfusion parameters measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasound in healthy dogs demonstrate a wide range of variability in the long-term

Daisy Liu (UGent) , Myriam Hesta (UGent) , Emmelie Stock (UGent) , Evelien Bogaerts (UGent) , Bart Broeckx (UGent) , Jimmy Saunders (UGent) and Katrien Vanderperren (UGent)
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Abstract
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound may be helpful for detecting early renal microvascular damage and dysfunction in dogs. However, before this noninvasive imaging method can be tested as an early-stage screening tool in clinical patients, an improved understanding of long-term variation in healthy animals is needed. In this prospective, secondary, longitudinal, serial measurements study, variability of contrast-enhanced ultrasound renal perfusion parameters was described for eight healthy dogs, using seven time points and a period of 83 weeks. Dogs were sedated with butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg), and contrast-enhanced ultrasound of each kidney was performed after an intravenous bolus injection of a microbubble contrast agent (0.04 mL/kg). Time-intensity curves were created from regions-of-interest drawn in the renal cortex and medulla. Intensity-related parameters representing blood volume and time-related parameters representing blood velocity were determined. A random-effects model using restricted maximum likelihood was used to estimate variance components. Within-dog coefficient of variation was defined as the ratio of the standard deviation over the mean. Time-related parameters such as time-to-peak, rise and fall time had lowest within-dog variability. Intensity-related parameters such as peak enhancement, wash-in and wash-out area under the curve, total area under the curve, and wash-in and washout rates had high within-dog variability (coefficient of variation > 45%). Authors therefore recommend the use of time-related parameters for future studies of renal perfusion. Within-dog variability for bilateral kidney measurements was extremely low, therefore contrast-enhanced ultrasound may be particularly useful for detecting unilateral changes in renal perfusion. Future studies are needed to compare contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings in healthy dogs versus dogs with renal disease.
Keywords
canine, kidney, microbubbles, perfusion, variation, BLOOD-FLOW, CEREBRAL PERFUSION, ULTRASONOGRAPHY, KIDNEYS, REPRODUCIBILITY, REPEATABILITY, MANAGEMENT, SEDATION, DISEASE, AGENT

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MLA
Liu, Daisy et al. “Renal Perfusion Parameters Measured by Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound in Healthy Dogs Demonstrate a Wide Range of Variability in the Long-term.” VETERINARY RADIOLOGY & ULTRASOUND 60.2 (2019): 201–209. Print.
APA
Liu, Daisy, Hesta, M., Stock, E., Bogaerts, E., Broeckx, B., Saunders, J., & Vanderperren, K. (2019). Renal perfusion parameters measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasound in healthy dogs demonstrate a wide range of variability in the long-term. VETERINARY RADIOLOGY & ULTRASOUND, 60(2), 201–209.
Chicago author-date
Liu, Daisy, Myriam Hesta, Emmelie Stock, Evelien Bogaerts, Bart Broeckx, Jimmy Saunders, and Katrien Vanderperren. 2019. “Renal Perfusion Parameters Measured by Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound in Healthy Dogs Demonstrate a Wide Range of Variability in the Long-term.” Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 60 (2): 201–209.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Liu, Daisy, Myriam Hesta, Emmelie Stock, Evelien Bogaerts, Bart Broeckx, Jimmy Saunders, and Katrien Vanderperren. 2019. “Renal Perfusion Parameters Measured by Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound in Healthy Dogs Demonstrate a Wide Range of Variability in the Long-term.” Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 60 (2): 201–209.
Vancouver
1.
Liu D, Hesta M, Stock E, Bogaerts E, Broeckx B, Saunders J, et al. Renal perfusion parameters measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasound in healthy dogs demonstrate a wide range of variability in the long-term. VETERINARY RADIOLOGY & ULTRASOUND. 2019;60(2):201–9.
IEEE
[1]
D. Liu et al., “Renal perfusion parameters measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasound in healthy dogs demonstrate a wide range of variability in the long-term,” VETERINARY RADIOLOGY & ULTRASOUND, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 201–209, 2019.
@article{8581251,
  abstract     = {Contrast-enhanced ultrasound may be helpful for detecting early renal microvascular damage and dysfunction in dogs. However, before this noninvasive imaging method can be tested as an early-stage screening tool in clinical patients, an improved understanding of long-term variation in healthy animals is needed. In this prospective, secondary, longitudinal, serial measurements study, variability of contrast-enhanced ultrasound renal perfusion parameters was described for eight healthy dogs, using seven time points and a period of 83 weeks. Dogs were sedated with butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg), and contrast-enhanced ultrasound of each kidney was performed after an intravenous bolus injection of a microbubble contrast agent (0.04 mL/kg). Time-intensity curves were created from regions-of-interest drawn in the renal cortex and medulla. Intensity-related parameters representing blood volume and time-related parameters representing blood velocity were determined. A random-effects model using restricted maximum likelihood was used to estimate variance components. Within-dog coefficient of variation was defined as the ratio of the standard deviation over the mean. Time-related parameters such as time-to-peak, rise and fall time had lowest within-dog variability. Intensity-related parameters such as peak enhancement, wash-in and wash-out area under the curve, total area under the curve, and wash-in and washout rates had high within-dog variability (coefficient of variation > 45%). Authors therefore recommend the use of time-related parameters for future studies of renal perfusion. Within-dog variability for bilateral kidney measurements was extremely low, therefore contrast-enhanced ultrasound may be particularly useful for detecting unilateral changes in renal perfusion. Future studies are needed to compare contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings in healthy dogs versus dogs with renal disease.},
  author       = {Liu, Daisy and Hesta, Myriam and Stock, Emmelie and Bogaerts, Evelien and Broeckx, Bart and Saunders, Jimmy and Vanderperren, Katrien},
  issn         = {1058-8183},
  journal      = {VETERINARY RADIOLOGY & ULTRASOUND},
  keywords     = {canine,kidney,microbubbles,perfusion,variation,BLOOD-FLOW,CEREBRAL PERFUSION,ULTRASONOGRAPHY,KIDNEYS,REPRODUCIBILITY,REPEATABILITY,MANAGEMENT,SEDATION,DISEASE,AGENT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {201--209},
  title        = {Renal perfusion parameters measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasound in healthy dogs demonstrate a wide range of variability in the long-term},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12690},
  volume       = {60},
  year         = {2019},
}

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