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Variability of serum concentrations of cystatin C and urinary retinol-binding protein, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, immunoglobulin G, and C-reactive protein in dogs

Daisy Liu (UGent) , Evelyne Meyer (UGent) , Bart Broeckx (UGent) , Sylvie Daminet (UGent) , Joris Delanghe (UGent) , Emmelie Stock (UGent) , Evelien Bogaerts (UGent) , Myriam Hesta (UGent) and Katrien Vanderperren (UGent)
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Abstract
Background: Markers of kidney dysfunction and damage have potential to detect chronic kidney disease (CKD) in early stages. However, data on long-term variation of these markers in healthy dogs is lacking and is crucial for the interpretation of results. Hypothesis/Objectives: To determine temporal variations of serum cystatin C (sCysC) and urinary retinol-binding protein (uRBP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), immunoglobulin G (uIgG), and C-reactive protein (uCRP) in healthy dogs. Animals: Eight clinically healthy adult Beagles were evaluated. Methods: Longitudinal observational study. Serum cystatin C was determined by particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay. Urinary retinol-binding protein, uNGAL, uIgG and uCRP were determined by ELISA and concentrations were indexed to urinary creatinine. Within- and between-dog variance components (VC) and within-dog coefficients of variation (CV) were determined from blood and urine collected at eight time points over 1.5 years. Results: Urinary C-reactive protein (uCRP) concentrations were consistently below the detection limit (5.28 ng/mL). Mean within-dog standard deviation for sCysC, uRBP/c, uNGAL/c and uIgG/c was 0.15 +/- 0.01 mg/L, 0.09 +/- 0.03 mg/g, 2.32 +/- 2.03 g/g and 12.47 +/- 10.98 mg/g, respectively. Within-dog CV for sCysC, uRBP/c, uNGAL/c and uIgG/c was 8.1%, 33.7%, 87.2% and 88.1%, respectively. Conclusions and clinical importance: Serum cystatin C, uRBP/c, uNGAL/c and uIgG/c exhibit a wide range of long-term within-dog variability. Researchers and veterinarians might need to take this into account when interpreting their results. To assess their diagnostic and predictive ability, future studies need to establish reference ranges for healthy dogs and dogs with CKD.
Keywords
Canine, glomerular, tubular, marker, variation, CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE, LINKED HEREDITARY NEPHROPATHY, RENAL-DISEASE, CANINE URINE, SYMMETRIC DIMETHYLARGININE, STORAGE-CONDITIONS, INJURY BIOMARKERS, CREATININE, MARKERS, DYSFUNCTION

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Chicago
Liu, Daisy, Evelyne Meyer, Bart Broeckx, Sylvie Daminet, Joris Delanghe, Emmelie Stock, Evelien Bogaerts, Myriam Hesta, and Katrien Vanderperren. 2018. “Variability of Serum Concentrations of Cystatin C and Urinary Retinol-binding Protein, Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin, Immunoglobulin G, and C-reactive Protein in Dogs.” Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 32 (5): 1659–1664.
APA
Liu, Daisy, Meyer, E., Broeckx, B., Daminet, S., Delanghe, J., Stock, E., Bogaerts, E., et al. (2018). Variability of serum concentrations of cystatin C and urinary retinol-binding protein, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, immunoglobulin G, and C-reactive protein in dogs. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, 32(5), 1659–1664.
Vancouver
1.
Liu D, Meyer E, Broeckx B, Daminet S, Delanghe J, Stock E, et al. Variability of serum concentrations of cystatin C and urinary retinol-binding protein, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, immunoglobulin G, and C-reactive protein in dogs. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE. 2018;32(5):1659–64.
MLA
Liu, Daisy et al. “Variability of Serum Concentrations of Cystatin C and Urinary Retinol-binding Protein, Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin, Immunoglobulin G, and C-reactive Protein in Dogs.” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE 32.5 (2018): 1659–1664. Print.
@article{8581250,
  abstract     = {Background: Markers of kidney dysfunction and damage have potential to detect chronic kidney disease (CKD) in early stages. However, data on long-term variation of these markers in healthy dogs is lacking and is crucial for the interpretation of results. 
Hypothesis/Objectives: To determine temporal variations of serum cystatin C (sCysC) and urinary retinol-binding protein (uRBP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), immunoglobulin G (uIgG), and C-reactive protein (uCRP) in healthy dogs. 
Animals: Eight clinically healthy adult Beagles were evaluated. 
Methods: Longitudinal observational study. Serum cystatin C was determined by particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay. Urinary retinol-binding protein, uNGAL, uIgG and uCRP were determined by ELISA and concentrations were indexed to urinary creatinine. Within- and between-dog variance components (VC) and within-dog coefficients of variation (CV) were determined from blood and urine collected at eight time points over 1.5 years. 
Results: Urinary C-reactive protein (uCRP) concentrations were consistently below the detection limit (5.28 ng/mL). Mean within-dog standard deviation for sCysC, uRBP/c, uNGAL/c and uIgG/c was 0.15 +/- 0.01 mg/L, 0.09 +/- 0.03 mg/g, 2.32 +/- 2.03 g/g and 12.47 +/- 10.98 mg/g, respectively. Within-dog CV for sCysC, uRBP/c, uNGAL/c and uIgG/c was 8.1%, 33.7%, 87.2% and 88.1%, respectively. 
Conclusions and clinical importance: Serum cystatin C, uRBP/c, uNGAL/c and uIgG/c exhibit a wide range of long-term within-dog variability. Researchers and veterinarians might need to take this into account when interpreting their results. To assess their diagnostic and predictive ability, future studies need to establish reference ranges for healthy dogs and dogs with CKD.},
  author       = {Liu, Daisy and Meyer, Evelyne and Broeckx, Bart and Daminet, Sylvie and Delanghe, Joris and Stock, Emmelie and Bogaerts, Evelien and Hesta, Myriam and Vanderperren, Katrien},
  issn         = {1939-1676},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE},
  keywords     = {Canine,glomerular,tubular,marker,variation,CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE,LINKED HEREDITARY NEPHROPATHY,RENAL-DISEASE,CANINE URINE,SYMMETRIC DIMETHYLARGININE,STORAGE-CONDITIONS,INJURY BIOMARKERS,CREATININE,MARKERS,DYSFUNCTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {1659--1664},
  title        = {Variability of serum concentrations of cystatin C and urinary retinol-binding protein, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, immunoglobulin G, and C-reactive protein in dogs},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15293},
  volume       = {32},
  year         = {2018},
}

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