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Ten-year follow-up of dental implants used for immediate loading in the edentulous mandible : a prospective clinical study

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Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the 10-year outcome of 25 patients with immediate loading in the edentulous mandible. Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients were consecutively treated with 5 immediately loaded fluoride-modified implants in the edentulous mandible. Implant survival and bone loss were evaluated by an external researcher comparing digital periapical radiographs taken during recall visits with baseline (at implant insertion). Statistical descriptive analysis and nonparametric tests were performed using SPSS v23, multilevel analysis was performed by means of R version 3.1.0. to identify risk factors for bone loss. Results: Twenty-one patients (8 males, 13 females, mean age 68.4, range 49-84) responded to the 10-year recall invitation. No implants were lost during follow-up, resulting in a 100% survival rate. After 10 years, bleeding on probing and plaque were present at 49.5% and 67.6% of the sites, respectively. The mean pocket probing depth was 3.77 mm (SD 0.73, range 3.0-6.83). Bone loss on implant level after 3, 12, 24, and 120 months was 0.16 mm (SD 0.33, range 0-1.75), 0.14 mm (SD 0.24, range 0-1.05), 0.17 mm (SD 0.27, range 0-1.5), and 0.49 mm (SD 1.08, range 0-7.8). Five implants were identified with or at risk for progressive bone loss. Forty-seven percent of the implants did not show any bone loss after 10 years in function and 87% lost less than 1 mm. Multilevel statistical analysis identified 2-year bone loss as a predictor for bone loss after 10 years of function. Conclusion: Immediate loading of 5 fluoride-modified dental implants with a fixed prosthetic rehabilitation is a predictable and reliable treatment in the edentulous mandible, based on a 100% implant survival and limited peri-implant bone loss. Implants used for immediate loading in the edentulous mandible who are showing early bone loss may be at higher risk to develop peri-implantitis.
Keywords
bone loss, crestal bone loss, edentulous mandible, immediate loading, long-term survival, marginal bone loss, SOFT-TISSUE THICKNESS, MARGINAL BONE LOSS, FIXED PROSTHESES, PERIODONTAL THERAPY, LOADED IMPLANTS, TILTED IMPLANTS, ASTRA TECH, DENTISTRY, REHABILITATION, SURVIVAL

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MLA
Windael, Simon et al. “Ten-year Follow-up of Dental Implants Used for Immediate Loading in the Edentulous Mandible : a Prospective Clinical Study.” CLINICAL IMPLANT DENTISTRY AND RELATED RESEARCH 20.4 (2018): 515–521. Print.
APA
Windael, S., Vervaeke, S., Wijnen, L., Jacquet, W., De Bruyn, H., & Collaert, B. (2018). Ten-year follow-up of dental implants used for immediate loading in the edentulous mandible : a prospective clinical study. CLINICAL IMPLANT DENTISTRY AND RELATED RESEARCH, 20(4), 515–521.
Chicago author-date
Windael, Simon, Stijn Vervaeke, Lieve Wijnen, Wolfgang Jacquet, Hugo De Bruyn, and Bruno Collaert. 2018. “Ten-year Follow-up of Dental Implants Used for Immediate Loading in the Edentulous Mandible : a Prospective Clinical Study.” Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research 20 (4): 515–521.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Windael, Simon, Stijn Vervaeke, Lieve Wijnen, Wolfgang Jacquet, Hugo De Bruyn, and Bruno Collaert. 2018. “Ten-year Follow-up of Dental Implants Used for Immediate Loading in the Edentulous Mandible : a Prospective Clinical Study.” Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research 20 (4): 515–521.
Vancouver
1.
Windael S, Vervaeke S, Wijnen L, Jacquet W, De Bruyn H, Collaert B. Ten-year follow-up of dental implants used for immediate loading in the edentulous mandible : a prospective clinical study. CLINICAL IMPLANT DENTISTRY AND RELATED RESEARCH. 2018;20(4):515–21.
IEEE
[1]
S. Windael, S. Vervaeke, L. Wijnen, W. Jacquet, H. De Bruyn, and B. Collaert, “Ten-year follow-up of dental implants used for immediate loading in the edentulous mandible : a prospective clinical study,” CLINICAL IMPLANT DENTISTRY AND RELATED RESEARCH, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 515–521, 2018.
@article{8581070,
  abstract     = {Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the 10-year outcome of 25 patients with immediate loading in the edentulous mandible. 
Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients were consecutively treated with 5 immediately loaded fluoride-modified implants in the edentulous mandible. Implant survival and bone loss were evaluated by an external researcher comparing digital periapical radiographs taken during recall visits with baseline (at implant insertion). Statistical descriptive analysis and nonparametric tests were performed using SPSS v23, multilevel analysis was performed by means of R version 3.1.0. to identify risk factors for bone loss. 
Results: Twenty-one patients (8 males, 13 females, mean age 68.4, range 49-84) responded to the 10-year recall invitation. No implants were lost during follow-up, resulting in a 100% survival rate. After 10 years, bleeding on probing and plaque were present at 49.5% and 67.6% of the sites, respectively. The mean pocket probing depth was 3.77 mm (SD 0.73, range 3.0-6.83). Bone loss on implant level after 3, 12, 24, and 120 months was 0.16 mm (SD 0.33, range 0-1.75), 0.14 mm (SD 0.24, range 0-1.05), 0.17 mm (SD 0.27, range 0-1.5), and 0.49 mm (SD 1.08, range 0-7.8). Five implants were identified with or at risk for progressive bone loss. Forty-seven percent of the implants did not show any bone loss after 10 years in function and 87% lost less than 1 mm. Multilevel statistical analysis identified 2-year bone loss as a predictor for bone loss after 10 years of function. 
Conclusion: Immediate loading of 5 fluoride-modified dental implants with a fixed prosthetic rehabilitation is a predictable and reliable treatment in the edentulous mandible, based on a 100% implant survival and limited peri-implant bone loss. Implants used for immediate loading in the edentulous mandible who are showing early bone loss may be at higher risk to develop peri-implantitis.},
  author       = {Windael, Simon and Vervaeke, Stijn and Wijnen, Lieve and Jacquet, Wolfgang and De Bruyn, Hugo and Collaert, Bruno},
  issn         = {1523-0899},
  journal      = {CLINICAL IMPLANT DENTISTRY AND RELATED RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {bone loss,crestal bone loss,edentulous mandible,immediate loading,long-term survival,marginal bone loss,SOFT-TISSUE THICKNESS,MARGINAL BONE LOSS,FIXED PROSTHESES,PERIODONTAL THERAPY,LOADED IMPLANTS,TILTED IMPLANTS,ASTRA TECH,DENTISTRY,REHABILITATION,SURVIVAL},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {515--521},
  title        = {Ten-year follow-up of dental implants used for immediate loading in the edentulous mandible : a prospective clinical study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cid.12612},
  volume       = {20},
  year         = {2018},
}

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