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Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) : prevalence and associated factors in 4 hospitals in Southeast Norway

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Abstract
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) and associated factors in acute care settings in Southeast Norway. DESIGN: Descriptive, multisite epidemiologic survey. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The study setting was 29 wards across 4 hospitals, in a hospital trust in the southeast of Norway. Data were collected from 340 patients (age ≥ 18 years). More than half (56.2%) were 70 years or older (median age category 70-79 years) and 53.3% were male. METHODS: Data collection was conducted in parallel with a pressure injury prevalence study undertaken in 2016. A modified Pressure Injury Prevalence Minimum Data Set, including documentation of fecal or urinary incontinence, use of indwelling fecal collection system or urinary catheter, and presence of IAD, was completed. RNs participating in the study were trained by the researchers on skin assessment and data extraction from the electronic medical record. Descriptive statistics were used for prevalence fi gures; the Kruskal-Wallis and χ 2 tests were used to determine associated factors. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that 16.5% (56 out of 340) of the sample were incontinent. The prevalence of IAD in the total population was 7.6% (26 out of 340). The prevalence of IAD was 29% (16 out of 56) among patients with urinary or fecal incontinence. Of those identified with IAD, 5.2% (18 out of 340) had category 1 (red intact skin) and 2.4% (8 of 340) had category 2 (red skin with breakdown). Bivariate analysis revealed that fecal incontinence ( P < .001), immobility ( P < .01), and 70 years or older ( P < .03) were associated with IAD. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence (patients with and without incontinence) of IAD was lower than reported in prior studies; frequent use of indwelling urinary catheters and a relatively low prevalence of incontinence may explain this finding. Similar to prior studies, almost 1 in 3 patients who were incontinent suffered from IAD, showing a need for evidence-based guidelines to prevent IAD in hospitalized patients. Findings suggest that particular attention should be given to prevent IAD among patients with fecal incontinence patients, 70 years and older, and those with immobility.
Keywords
Acute care, Epidemiology, Incontinence-associated dermatitis, Prevalence, Severity, NURSING-HOME RESIDENTS, PERINEAL DERMATITIS, PRESSURE-ULCERS, RISK-FACTORS, PREVALENCE, CARE, PREVENTION, INJURY

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MLA
Johansen, Edda et al. “Incontinence-associated Dermatitis (IAD) : Prevalence and Associated Factors in 4 Hospitals in Southeast Norway.” JOURNAL OF WOUND OSTOMY AND CONTINENCE NURSING 45.6 (2018): 527–531. Print.
APA
Johansen, E., Bakken, L. N., Duvaland, E., Faulstich, J., Hoelstad, H. L., Moore, Z., Vestby, E. M., et al. (2018). Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) : prevalence and associated factors in 4 hospitals in Southeast Norway. JOURNAL OF WOUND OSTOMY AND CONTINENCE NURSING, 45(6), 527–531.
Chicago author-date
Johansen, Edda, Linda N Bakken, Elisabeth Duvaland, Jürgen Faulstich, Hanne L Hoelstad, Zena Moore, Eva Marie Vestby, and Dimitri Beeckman. 2018. “Incontinence-associated Dermatitis (IAD) : Prevalence and Associated Factors in 4 Hospitals in Southeast Norway.” Journal of Wound Ostomy and Continence Nursing 45 (6): 527–531.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Johansen, Edda, Linda N Bakken, Elisabeth Duvaland, Jürgen Faulstich, Hanne L Hoelstad, Zena Moore, Eva Marie Vestby, and Dimitri Beeckman. 2018. “Incontinence-associated Dermatitis (IAD) : Prevalence and Associated Factors in 4 Hospitals in Southeast Norway.” Journal of Wound Ostomy and Continence Nursing 45 (6): 527–531.
Vancouver
1.
Johansen E, Bakken LN, Duvaland E, Faulstich J, Hoelstad HL, Moore Z, et al. Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) : prevalence and associated factors in 4 hospitals in Southeast Norway. JOURNAL OF WOUND OSTOMY AND CONTINENCE NURSING. 2018;45(6):527–31.
IEEE
[1]
E. Johansen et al., “Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) : prevalence and associated factors in 4 hospitals in Southeast Norway,” JOURNAL OF WOUND OSTOMY AND CONTINENCE NURSING, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 527–531, 2018.
@article{8580135,
  abstract     = {{PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) and associated factors in acute care settings in Southeast Norway.
DESIGN: Descriptive, multisite epidemiologic survey.
SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The study setting was 29 wards across 4 hospitals, in a hospital trust in the southeast of Norway. Data were collected from 340 patients (age ≥ 18 years). More than half (56.2%) were 70 years or older (median age category 70-79 years) and 53.3% were male.
METHODS: Data collection was conducted in parallel with a pressure injury prevalence study undertaken in 2016. A modified Pressure Injury Prevalence Minimum Data Set, including documentation of fecal or urinary incontinence, use of indwelling fecal collection system or urinary catheter, and presence of IAD, was completed. RNs participating in the study were trained by the researchers on skin assessment and data extraction from the electronic medical record. Descriptive statistics were used for prevalence fi gures; the Kruskal-Wallis and χ 2 tests were used to determine associated factors.
RESULTS: Analysis revealed that 16.5% (56 out of 340) of the sample were incontinent. The prevalence of IAD in the total population was 7.6% (26 out of 340). The prevalence of IAD was 29% (16 out of 56) among patients with urinary or fecal incontinence. Of those identified with IAD, 5.2% (18 out of 340) had category 1 (red intact skin) and 2.4% (8 of 340) had category 2 (red skin with breakdown). Bivariate analysis revealed that fecal incontinence ( P < .001), immobility ( P < .01), and 70 years or older ( P < .03) were associated with IAD.
CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence (patients with and without incontinence) of IAD was lower than reported in prior studies; frequent use of indwelling urinary catheters and a relatively low prevalence of incontinence may explain this finding. Similar to prior studies, almost 1 in 3 patients who were incontinent suffered from IAD, showing a need for evidence-based guidelines to prevent IAD in hospitalized patients. Findings suggest that particular attention should be given to prevent IAD among patients with fecal incontinence patients, 70 years and older, and those with immobility.}},
  author       = {{Johansen, Edda and Bakken, Linda N and Duvaland, Elisabeth and Faulstich, Jürgen and Hoelstad, Hanne L and Moore, Zena and Vestby, Eva Marie and Beeckman, Dimitri}},
  issn         = {{1071-5754}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF WOUND OSTOMY AND CONTINENCE NURSING}},
  keywords     = {{Acute care,Epidemiology,Incontinence-associated dermatitis,Prevalence,Severity,NURSING-HOME RESIDENTS,PERINEAL DERMATITIS,PRESSURE-ULCERS,RISK-FACTORS,PREVALENCE,CARE,PREVENTION,INJURY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{6}},
  pages        = {{527--531}},
  title        = {{Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) : prevalence and associated factors in 4 hospitals in Southeast Norway}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/won.0000000000000480}},
  volume       = {{45}},
  year         = {{2018}},
}

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