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Magnetic motor evoked potentials of cervical muscles in horses

Joke Rijckaert (UGent) , Bart Pardon (UGent) , Luc Van Ham (UGent) , Philip Joosten (UGent) , Gunther van Loon (UGent) and Piet Deprez (UGent)
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Abstract
Background: When surgical treatment of cervical vertebral malformation is considered, precise localization of compression sites is essential, but remains challenging. Magnetic motor evoked potentials (mMEP) from paravertebral muscles are useful in localizing spinal cord lesions, but no information about cervical muscle mMEP in horses is available yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the possibility, normal values, inter-and intra-observer agreement and factors that have an effect on cervical mMEP in healthy horses. Methods: Transcranial magnetic stimulation was performed on 50 normal horses and 4 (2 left, 2 right) muscle responses were recorded at the middle of each cervical vertebra (C1-C7) and additionally just caudal to C7 to evaluate cervical nerves (Cn) Cn1 to Cn8. Latency time and amplitude of the recorded mMEP were defined by both an experienced and an unexperienced operator. Results: Latency increased gradually from 14.2 +/- 1.38 ms for Cn3 to 17.7 +/- 1.36 ms for Cn8, was significantly influenced by cervical nerve (P < 0.01), gender (P = 0.02) and height (P = 0.03) and had a good intra-observer agreement. The smallest mean amplitude (4.35 +/- 2.37 mV) was found at Cn2, the largest (5.99 +/- 2.53 mV) at Cn3. Amplitude was only significantly influenced by cervical nerve (P < 0.01) and had a low intra-observer agreement. No significant effect of observer on latency (P = 0.88) or amplitude (P = 0.99) measurements was found. Conclusion: mMEP of cervical muscles in normal horses are easy to collect and to evaluate with limited intra-and inter-observer variation concerning amplitude and should be investigated in future studies in ataxic horses to evaluate its clinical value.
Keywords
EMG, Neurologic test, Spinal ataxia, Surgery, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, VERTEBRAL COMPRESSIVE MYELOPATHY, SPINAL-CORD COMPRESSION, STENOTIC MYELOPATHY, THOROUGHBRED FOALS, SURGICAL-TREATMENT, NORMAL VALUES, STIMULATION, MALFORMATION, CONDUCTION, DISEASE

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Chicago
Rijckaert, Joke, Bart Pardon, Luc Van Ham, Philip Joosten, Gunther van Loon, and Piet Deprez. 2018. “Magnetic Motor Evoked Potentials of Cervical Muscles in Horses.” Bmc Veterinary Research 14.
APA
Rijckaert, Joke, Pardon, B., Van Ham, L., Joosten, P., van Loon, G., & Deprez, P. (2018). Magnetic motor evoked potentials of cervical muscles in horses. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH, 14.
Vancouver
1.
Rijckaert J, Pardon B, Van Ham L, Joosten P, van Loon G, Deprez P. Magnetic motor evoked potentials of cervical muscles in horses. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2018;14.
MLA
Rijckaert, Joke, Bart Pardon, Luc Van Ham, et al. “Magnetic Motor Evoked Potentials of Cervical Muscles in Horses.” BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH 14 (2018): n. pag. Print.
@article{8578810,
  abstract     = {Background: When surgical treatment of cervical vertebral malformation is considered, precise localization of compression sites is essential, but remains challenging. Magnetic motor evoked potentials (mMEP) from paravertebral muscles are useful in localizing spinal cord lesions, but no information about cervical muscle mMEP in horses is available yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the possibility, normal values, inter-and intra-observer agreement and factors that have an effect on cervical mMEP in healthy horses. 
Methods: Transcranial magnetic stimulation was performed on 50 normal horses and 4 (2 left, 2 right) muscle responses were recorded at the middle of each cervical vertebra (C1-C7) and additionally just caudal to C7 to evaluate cervical nerves (Cn) Cn1 to Cn8. Latency time and amplitude of the recorded mMEP were defined by both an experienced and an unexperienced operator. 
Results: Latency increased gradually from 14.2 +/- 1.38 ms for Cn3 to 17.7 +/- 1.36 ms for Cn8, was significantly influenced by cervical nerve (P {\textlangle} 0.01), gender (P = 0.02) and height (P = 0.03) and had a good intra-observer agreement. The smallest mean amplitude (4.35 +/- 2.37 mV) was found at Cn2, the largest (5.99 +/- 2.53 mV) at Cn3. Amplitude was only significantly influenced by cervical nerve (P {\textlangle} 0.01) and had a low intra-observer agreement. No significant effect of observer on latency (P = 0.88) or amplitude (P = 0.99) measurements was found. 
Conclusion: mMEP of cervical muscles in normal horses are easy to collect and to evaluate with limited intra-and inter-observer variation concerning amplitude and should be investigated in future studies in ataxic horses to evaluate its clinical value.},
  articleno    = {290},
  author       = {Rijckaert, Joke and Pardon, Bart and Van Ham, Luc and Joosten, Philip and van Loon, Gunther and Deprez, Piet},
  issn         = {1746-6148},
  journal      = {BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {8},
  title        = {Magnetic motor evoked potentials of cervical muscles in horses},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-018-1620-z},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2018},
}

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