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Building energy performance: sphere area as a fair normalization concept

Wolf Bracke (UGent) , Marc Delghust (UGent) , Jelle Laverge (UGent) and Arnold Janssens (UGent)
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Abstract
Residential building energy performance indicators are compared with a different approach for the normalization of the characteristic yearly primary energy use. The purpose is to analyse which approach results in a fair assessment of more compact, energy-efficient building geometries, and of smaller building size. A normalization by floor area is shown to result in a poorer energy performance rating for smaller buildings. The notional building approach, as recently introduced in various countries, does not lead to a fair assessment of efficient geometries. Furthermore, the choice of reference characteristics to calculate the energy performance rating has a different impact on buildings with different characteristics. An average building approach is introduced as an improvement of the notional building approach. Form-efficient buildings are found to achieve a lower energy performance rating, but the choice of the reference characteristics is still present to a limited extent. As a second alternative, it is proposed to normalize the energy use by the sphere-area approach: the area of a sphere with the same volume as the rated building. This method leads to a fair assessment of form-efficient buildings and creates an incentive for more efficient building geometries and typologies.
Keywords
buildings, energy performance indicator, form efficiency, geometry, normalization, primary energy use

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Bracke, Wolf, Marc Delghust, Jelle Laverge, and Arnold Janssens. 2019. “Building Energy Performance: Sphere Area as a Fair Normalization Concept.” Building Research & Information 47 (5): 549–566.
APA
Bracke, Wolf, Delghust, M., Laverge, J., & Janssens, A. (2019). Building energy performance: sphere area as a fair normalization concept. Building Research & Information, 47(5), 549–566.
Vancouver
1.
Bracke W, Delghust M, Laverge J, Janssens A. Building energy performance: sphere area as a fair normalization concept. Building Research & Information. Informa UK Limited; 2019;47(5):549–66.
MLA
Bracke, Wolf, Marc Delghust, Jelle Laverge, et al. “Building Energy Performance: Sphere Area as a Fair Normalization Concept.” Building Research & Information 47.5 (2019): 549–566. Print.
@article{8578302,
  abstract     = {Residential building energy performance indicators are compared with a different approach for the normalization of the characteristic yearly primary energy use. The purpose is to analyse which approach results in a fair assessment of more compact, energy-efficient building geometries, and of smaller building size. A normalization by floor area is shown to result in a poorer energy performance rating for smaller buildings. The notional building approach, as recently introduced in various countries, does not lead to a fair assessment of efficient geometries. Furthermore, the choice of reference characteristics to calculate the energy performance rating has a different impact on buildings with different characteristics. An average building approach is introduced as an improvement of the notional building approach. Form-efficient buildings are found to achieve a lower energy performance rating, but the choice of the reference characteristics is still present to a limited extent. As a second alternative, it is proposed to normalize the energy use by the sphere-area approach: the area of a sphere with the same volume as the rated building. This method leads to a fair assessment of form-efficient buildings and creates an incentive for more efficient building geometries and typologies.},
  author       = {Bracke, Wolf and Delghust, Marc and Laverge, Jelle and Janssens, Arnold},
  issn         = {0961-3218},
  journal      = {Building Research \& Information},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {549--566},
  publisher    = {Informa UK Limited},
  title        = {Building energy performance: sphere area as a fair normalization concept},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2018.1467703},
  volume       = {47},
  year         = {2019},
}

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