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Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

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Abstract
It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.
Keywords
MENTAL-HEALTH, GENDER-DIFFERENCES, ENVIRONMENT, BENEFITS, ASSOCIATIONS, AUSTRALIANS, ATTRIBUTES, MORTALITY, QUANTITY, QUALITY, green space, mental health, general health, European cities, subpopulations

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Chicago
Ruijsbroek, Annemarie, Mariel Droomers, Hanneke Kruize, Elise Van Kempen, Christopher J. Gidlow, Gemma Hurst, Sandra Andrusaityte, et al. 2017. “Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ Between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14 (6): 1–15.
APA
Ruijsbroek, A., Droomers, M., Kruize, H., Van Kempen, E., Gidlow, C. J., Hurst, G., Andrusaityte, S., et al. (2017). Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(6), 1–15.
Vancouver
1.
Ruijsbroek A, Droomers M, Kruize H, Van Kempen E, Gidlow CJ, Hurst G, et al. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Basel: Mdpi Ag; 2017;14(6):1–15.
MLA
Ruijsbroek, Annemarie, Mariel Droomers, Hanneke Kruize, et al. “Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ Between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14.6 (2017): 1–15. Print.
@article{8578003,
  abstract     = {It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.},
  articleno    = {618},
  author       = {Ruijsbroek, Annemarie and Droomers, Mariel and Kruize, Hanneke and Van Kempen, Elise and Gidlow, Christopher J. and Hurst, Gemma and Andrusaityte, Sandra and Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J. and Maas, Jolanda and Hardyns, Wim and Stronks, Karien and Groenewegen, Peter P.},
  issn         = {1660-4601},
  journal      = {International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {618:1--618:15},
  publisher    = {Mdpi Ag},
  title        = {Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14060618},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2017},
}

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