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Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities

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Abstract
This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.
Keywords
COMMUNITY, URBAN, LONELINESS, ATTRIBUTES, MULTILEVEL, ATTACHMENT, RESIDENTS, QUANTITY, QUALITY, CONTEXT, Neighbourhood, Green, Social environment, Mental health

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MLA
Ruijsbroek, Annemarie, Sigrid M. Mohnen, Mariel Droomers, et al. “Neighbourhood Green Space, Social Environment and Mental Health: An Examination in Four European Cities.” International Journal of Public Health 62.6 (2017): 657–667. Print.
APA
Ruijsbroek, A., Mohnen, S. M., Droomers, M., Kruize, H., Gidlow, C., Grazuleviciene, R., Andrusaityte, S., et al. (2017). Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities. International Journal of Public Health, 62(6), 657–667.
Chicago author-date
Ruijsbroek, Annemarie, Sigrid M. Mohnen, Mariel Droomers, Hanneke Kruize, Christopher Gidlow, Regina Grazuleviciene, Sandra Andrusaityte, et al. 2017. “Neighbourhood Green Space, Social Environment and Mental Health: An Examination in Four European Cities.” International Journal of Public Health 62 (6): 657–667.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ruijsbroek, Annemarie, Sigrid M. Mohnen, Mariel Droomers, Hanneke Kruize, Christopher Gidlow, Regina Grazuleviciene, Sandra Andrusaityte, Jolanda Maas, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Daniel Masterson, Naomi Ellis, Elise van Kempen, Wim Hardyns, Karien Stronks, and Peter P. Groenewegen. 2017. “Neighbourhood Green Space, Social Environment and Mental Health: An Examination in Four European Cities.” International Journal of Public Health 62 (6): 657–667.
Vancouver
1.
Ruijsbroek A, Mohnen SM, Droomers M, Kruize H, Gidlow C, Grazuleviciene R, et al. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities. International Journal of Public Health. Basel: Springer Basel Ag; 2017;62(6):657–67.
IEEE
[1]
A. Ruijsbroek et al., “Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities,” International Journal of Public Health, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 657–667, 2017.
@article{8578002,
  abstract     = {This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.},
  author       = {Ruijsbroek, Annemarie and Mohnen, Sigrid M. and Droomers, Mariel and Kruize, Hanneke and Gidlow, Christopher and Grazuleviciene, Regina and Andrusaityte, Sandra and Maas, Jolanda and Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J. and Triguero-Mas, Margarita and Masterson, Daniel and Ellis, Naomi and van Kempen, Elise and Hardyns, Wim and Stronks, Karien and Groenewegen, Peter P.},
  issn         = {1661-8556},
  journal      = {International Journal of Public Health},
  keywords     = {COMMUNITY,URBAN,LONELINESS,ATTRIBUTES,MULTILEVEL,ATTACHMENT,RESIDENTS,QUANTITY,QUALITY,CONTEXT,Neighbourhood,Green,Social environment,Mental health},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {657--667},
  publisher    = {Springer Basel Ag},
  title        = {Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00038-017-0963-8},
  volume       = {62},
  year         = {2017},
}

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