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Effects of selexipag and its active metabolite in contrasting the profibrotic myofibroblast activity in cultured scleroderma skin fibroblasts

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Abstract
Background: Myofibroblasts contribute to fibrosis through the overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, primarily type I collagen (COL-1) and fibronectin (FN), a process which is mediated in systemic sclerosis (SSc) by the activation of fibrogenic intracellular signaling transduction molecules, including extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt). Selexipag is a prostacyclin receptor agonist synthesized for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The study investigated the possibility for selexipag and its active metabolite (ACT-333679) to downregulate the profibrotic activity in primary cultures of SSc fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and the fibrogenic signaling molecules involved. Methods: Fibroblasts from skin biopsies obtained with Ethics Committee (EC) approval from patients with SSc, after giving signed informed consent, were cultured until the 3rd culture passage and then either maintained in normal growth medium (untreated cells) or independently treated with different concentrations of selexipag (from 30 mu M to 0.3 mu M) or ACT-333679 (from 10 mu M to 0.1 mu M) for 48 h. Protein and gene expressions of a-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), fibroblast specific protein-1 (S100A4), COL-1, and FN were investigated by western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation was investigated in untreated and ACT-333679-treated cells by western botting. Results: Selexipag and ACT-333679 significantly reduced protein synthesis and gene expression of a-SMA, S100A4, and COL-1 in cultured SSc fibroblasts/myofibroblasts compared to untreated cells, whereas FN was significantly downregulated at the protein level. Interestingly, ACT-333679 significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt in cultured SSc fibroblasts/myofibroblasts. Conclusions: Selexipag and mainly its active metabolite ACT-333679 were found for the first time to potentially interfere with the profibrotic activity of cultured SSc fibroblasts/myofibroblasts at least in vitro, possibly through the downregulation of fibrogenic Erk1/2 and Akt signaling molecules.
Keywords
Prostacyclin receptor agonists, Skin fibroblasts, Fibrosis, Systemic sclerosis, Connective tissue diseases, PROSTACYCLIN RECEPTOR AGONIST, RAYNAUDS-PHENOMENON SECONDARY, RAT PULMONARY-ARTERY, SYSTEMIC-SCLEROSIS, GROWTH-FACTOR, ORAL ILOPROST, FIBROSIS, ENDOTHELIN-1, HYPERTENSION, PATHWAY

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MLA
Cutolo, Maurizio, Barbara Ruaro, Paola Montagna, et al. “Effects of Selexipag and Its Active Metabolite in Contrasting the Profibrotic Myofibroblast Activity in Cultured Scleroderma Skin Fibroblasts.” ARTHRITIS RESEARCH & THERAPY 20 (2018): n. pag. Print.
APA
Cutolo, Maurizio, Ruaro, B., Montagna, P., Brizzolara, R., Stratta, E., Trombetta, A. C., Scabini, S., et al. (2018). Effects of selexipag and its active metabolite in contrasting the profibrotic myofibroblast activity in cultured scleroderma skin fibroblasts. ARTHRITIS RESEARCH & THERAPY, 20.
Chicago author-date
Cutolo, Maurizio, Barbara Ruaro, Paola Montagna, Renata Brizzolara, Emanuela Stratta, Amelia Chiara Trombetta, Stefano Scabini, et al. 2018. “Effects of Selexipag and Its Active Metabolite in Contrasting the Profibrotic Myofibroblast Activity in Cultured Scleroderma Skin Fibroblasts.” Arthritis Research & Therapy 20.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Cutolo, Maurizio, Barbara Ruaro, Paola Montagna, Renata Brizzolara, Emanuela Stratta, Amelia Chiara Trombetta, Stefano Scabini, Pier Paolo Tavilla, Aurora Parodi, Claudio Corallo, Nicola Giordano, Sabrina Paolino, Carmen Pizzorni, Alberto Sulli, Vanessa Smith, and Stefano Soldano. 2018. “Effects of Selexipag and Its Active Metabolite in Contrasting the Profibrotic Myofibroblast Activity in Cultured Scleroderma Skin Fibroblasts.” Arthritis Research & Therapy 20.
Vancouver
1.
Cutolo M, Ruaro B, Montagna P, Brizzolara R, Stratta E, Trombetta AC, et al. Effects of selexipag and its active metabolite in contrasting the profibrotic myofibroblast activity in cultured scleroderma skin fibroblasts. ARTHRITIS RESEARCH & THERAPY. 2018;20.
IEEE
[1]
M. Cutolo et al., “Effects of selexipag and its active metabolite in contrasting the profibrotic myofibroblast activity in cultured scleroderma skin fibroblasts,” ARTHRITIS RESEARCH & THERAPY, vol. 20, 2018.
@article{8576169,
  abstract     = {Background: Myofibroblasts contribute to fibrosis through the overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, primarily type I collagen (COL-1) and fibronectin (FN), a process which is mediated in systemic sclerosis (SSc) by the activation of fibrogenic intracellular signaling transduction molecules, including extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt). Selexipag is a prostacyclin receptor agonist synthesized for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The study investigated the possibility for selexipag and its active metabolite (ACT-333679) to downregulate the profibrotic activity in primary cultures of SSc fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and the fibrogenic signaling molecules involved. 
Methods: Fibroblasts from skin biopsies obtained with Ethics Committee (EC) approval from patients with SSc, after giving signed informed consent, were cultured until the 3rd culture passage and then either maintained in normal growth medium (untreated cells) or independently treated with different concentrations of selexipag (from 30 mu M to 0.3 mu M) or ACT-333679 (from 10 mu M to 0.1 mu M) for 48 h. Protein and gene expressions of a-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), fibroblast specific protein-1 (S100A4), COL-1, and FN were investigated by western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation was investigated in untreated and ACT-333679-treated cells by western botting. 
Results: Selexipag and ACT-333679 significantly reduced protein synthesis and gene expression of a-SMA, S100A4, and COL-1 in cultured SSc fibroblasts/myofibroblasts compared to untreated cells, whereas FN was significantly downregulated at the protein level. Interestingly, ACT-333679 significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt in cultured SSc fibroblasts/myofibroblasts. 
Conclusions: Selexipag and mainly its active metabolite ACT-333679 were found for the first time to potentially interfere with the profibrotic activity of cultured SSc fibroblasts/myofibroblasts at least in vitro, possibly through the downregulation of fibrogenic Erk1/2 and Akt signaling molecules.},
  articleno    = {77},
  author       = {Cutolo, Maurizio and Ruaro, Barbara and Montagna, Paola and Brizzolara, Renata and Stratta, Emanuela and Trombetta, Amelia Chiara and Scabini, Stefano and Tavilla, Pier Paolo and Parodi, Aurora and Corallo, Claudio and Giordano, Nicola and Paolino, Sabrina and Pizzorni, Carmen and Sulli, Alberto and Smith, Vanessa and Soldano, Stefano},
  issn         = {1478-6354},
  journal      = {ARTHRITIS RESEARCH & THERAPY},
  keywords     = {Prostacyclin receptor agonists,Skin fibroblasts,Fibrosis,Systemic sclerosis,Connective tissue diseases,PROSTACYCLIN RECEPTOR AGONIST,RAYNAUDS-PHENOMENON SECONDARY,RAT PULMONARY-ARTERY,SYSTEMIC-SCLEROSIS,GROWTH-FACTOR,ORAL ILOPROST,FIBROSIS,ENDOTHELIN-1,HYPERTENSION,PATHWAY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {11},
  title        = {Effects of selexipag and its active metabolite in contrasting the profibrotic myofibroblast activity in cultured scleroderma skin fibroblasts},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-018-1577-0},
  volume       = {20},
  year         = {2018},
}

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