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Abyssal plain faunal carbon flows remain depressed 26 years after a simulated deep-sea mining disturbance

(2018) BIOGEOSCIENCES. 15(13). p.4131-4145
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Abstract
Future deep-sea mining for polymetallic nodules in abyssal plains will negatively impact the benthic ecosystem, but it is largely unclear whether this ecosystem will be able to recover from mining disturbance and if so, to what extent and at what timescale. During the "DISturbance and reCOLonization" (DISCOL) experiment, a total of 22% of the seafloor within a 10.8 km(2) circular area of the nodule-rich seafloor in the Peru Basin (SE Pacific) was ploughed in 1989 to bury nodules and mix the surface sediment. This area was revisited 0.1, 0.5, 3, 7, and 26 years after the disturbance to assess macrofauna, invertebrate megafauna and fish density and diversity. We used this unique abyssal faunal time series to develop carbon-based food web models for each point in the time series using the linear inverse modeling approach for sediments subjected to two disturbance levels: (1) outside the plough tracks; not directly disturbed by plough, but probably suffered from additional sedimentation; and (2) inside the plough tracks. Total faunal carbon stock was always higher outside plough tracks compared with inside plough tracks. After 26 years, the carbon stock inside the plough tracks was 54% of the carbon stock outside plough tracks. Deposit feeders were least affected by the disturbance, with modeled respiration, external predation, and excretion rates being reduced by only 2.6% inside plough tracks compared with outside plough tracks after 26 years. In contrast, the respiration rate of filter and suspension feeders was 79.5% lower in the plough tracks after 26 years. The "total system throughput" (T..), i.e., the total sum of modeled carbon flows in the food web, was higher throughout the time series outside plough tracks compared with the corresponding inside plough tracks area and was lowest inside plough tracks directly after the disturbance (8.63 x 10(-3) +/- 1.58 x 10(-5) mmol C m(-2) d(-1)). Even 26 years after the DISCOL disturbance, the discrepancy of T.. between outside and inside plough tracks was still 56 %. Hence, C cycling within the faunal compartments of an abyssal plain ecosystem remains reduced 26 years after physical disturbance, and a longer period is required for the system to recover from such a small-scale sediment disturbance experiment.
Keywords
PERU BASIN, BODY-SIZE, PHYSICAL DISTURBANCE, NORTHEAST PACIFIC, SCAVENGING FISHES, SOUTHEAST PACIFIC, FOOD LIMITATION, RESPIRATION, GROWTH, ECOSYSTEM

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Chicago
Stratmann, Tanja, Lidia Lins Pereira, Autun Purser, Yann Marcon, Clara F Rodrigues, Ascensão Ravara, Marina R Cunha, et al. 2018. “Abyssal Plain Faunal Carbon Flows Remain Depressed 26 Years After a Simulated Deep-sea Mining Disturbance.” Biogeosciences 15 (13): 4131–4145.
APA
Stratmann, T., Lins Pereira, L., Purser, A., Marcon, Y., Rodrigues, C. F., Ravara, A., Cunha, M. R., et al. (2018). Abyssal plain faunal carbon flows remain depressed 26 years after a simulated deep-sea mining disturbance. BIOGEOSCIENCES, 15(13), 4131–4145.
Vancouver
1.
Stratmann T, Lins Pereira L, Purser A, Marcon Y, Rodrigues CF, Ravara A, et al. Abyssal plain faunal carbon flows remain depressed 26 years after a simulated deep-sea mining disturbance. BIOGEOSCIENCES. 2018;15(13):4131–45.
MLA
Stratmann, Tanja et al. “Abyssal Plain Faunal Carbon Flows Remain Depressed 26 Years After a Simulated Deep-sea Mining Disturbance.” BIOGEOSCIENCES 15.13 (2018): 4131–4145. Print.
@article{8575631,
  abstract     = {Future deep-sea mining for polymetallic nodules in abyssal plains will negatively impact the benthic ecosystem, but it is largely unclear whether this ecosystem will be able to recover from mining disturbance and if so, to what extent and at what timescale. During the {\textacutedbl}DISturbance and reCOLonization{\textacutedbl} (DISCOL) experiment, a total of 22\% of the seafloor within a 10.8 km(2) circular area of the nodule-rich seafloor in the Peru Basin (SE Pacific) was ploughed in 1989 to bury nodules and mix the surface sediment. This area was revisited 0.1, 0.5, 3, 7, and 26 years after the disturbance to assess macrofauna, invertebrate megafauna and fish density and diversity. We used this unique abyssal faunal time series to develop carbon-based food web models for each point in the time series using the linear inverse modeling approach for sediments subjected to two disturbance levels: (1) outside the plough tracks; not directly disturbed by plough, but probably suffered from additional sedimentation; and (2) inside the plough tracks. Total faunal carbon stock was always higher outside plough tracks compared with inside plough tracks. After 26 years, the carbon stock inside the plough tracks was 54\% of the carbon stock outside plough tracks. Deposit feeders were least affected by the disturbance, with modeled respiration, external predation, and excretion rates being reduced by only 2.6\% inside plough tracks compared with outside plough tracks after 26 years. In contrast, the respiration rate of filter and suspension feeders was 79.5\% lower in the plough tracks after 26 years. The {\textacutedbl}total system throughput{\textacutedbl} (T..), i.e., the total sum of modeled carbon flows in the food web, was higher throughout the time series outside plough tracks compared with the corresponding inside plough tracks area and was lowest inside plough tracks directly after the disturbance (8.63 x 10(-3) +/- 1.58 x 10(-5) mmol C m(-2) d(-1)). Even 26 years after the DISCOL disturbance, the discrepancy of T.. between outside and inside plough tracks was still 56 \%. Hence, C cycling within the faunal compartments of an abyssal plain ecosystem remains reduced 26 years after physical disturbance, and a longer period is required for the system to recover from such a small-scale sediment disturbance experiment.},
  author       = {Stratmann, Tanja and Lins Pereira, Lidia and Purser, Autun and Marcon, Yann and Rodrigues, Clara F and Ravara, Ascens{\~a}o and Cunha, Marina R and Simon-Lled{\'o}, Erik and Jones, Daniel OB and Sweetman, Andrew K and K{\"o}ser, Kevin and van Oevelen, Dick},
  issn         = {1726-4170},
  journal      = {BIOGEOSCIENCES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {13},
  pages        = {4131--4145},
  title        = {Abyssal plain faunal carbon flows remain depressed 26 years after a simulated deep-sea mining disturbance},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-4131-2018},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2018},
}

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