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Mass selection and the evolution of the morphology-density relation from z=0.8 to 0

(2007) ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 670(1). p.190-205
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Abstract
We examined the morphology-density relations for galaxy samples selected by luminosity and by mass in each of five massive X-ray clusters from z = 0.023 to 0.83 for 674 spectroscopically confirmed members. Rest-frame optical colors and visual morphologies were obtained primarily from Hubble Space Telescope images. The visual morphologies ensure consistency with the extensive published results on galaxy evolution in dense environments. Morphologydensity relations (MDRs) are derived in each cluster from a complete, luminosity-selected sample of 452 galaxies with a magnitude limit M-V < M-V(star) + 1. The change in the early-type fraction with redshift matches previous work for massive clusters of galaxies. We performed a similar analysis, deriving MDRs for complete, mass-selected samples of 441 galaxies with a mass limit of 10(10.6) M-circle dot. Our mass limit includes faint objects, the equivalent of similar or equal to 1 mag below L-star for the red cluster galaxies, and encompasses similar or equal to 70% of the stellar mass in cluster galaxies. The MDRs in the massselected sample at densities of Sigma > 50 galaxies Mpc(-2) are similar to those in the luminosity-selected sample but show larger early-type fractions, with a weak indication of a shallower slope. However, the trend with redshift in the fraction of elliptical and S0 galaxies with masses > 10(10.6) M-circle dot differs significantly between the mass-and luminosityselected samples. The clear trend seen in the early-type fraction from z = 0 to similar or equal to 0.8 is not found in mass-selected samples. The early-type galaxy fraction changes much less and is consistent with being constant at 92% +/- 4% at Sigma > 500 galaxies Mpc(-2) and 83% +/- 3% at 50 galaxies Mpc(-2) < Sigma < 500 galaxies Mpc(-2). Given the mass limit in our sample, this suggests that galaxies of mass lower than > 10(10.6) M-circle dot play a significant role in the evolution of the early-type fraction in luminosity-selected samples; i. e., they are larger contributors to the luminosity-selected samples at higher redshifts than at low redshifts.
Keywords
EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES, CLUSTER CL 1358+62, MEDIUM-SENSITIVITY SURVEY, COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION, DIGITAL SKY SURVEY, HUBBLE-SPACE-TELESCOPE, CCD SURFACE PHOTOMETRY, X-RAY DATA, STAR-FORMATION, COMA CLUSTER, galaxies : clusters : general, galaxies : elliptical and lenticular, cD, galaxies : evolution galaxies : fundamental parameters, galaxies : photometry

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MLA
Holden, BP, GD Illingworth, M Franx, et al. “Mass Selection and the Evolution of the Morphology-density Relation from Z=0.8 to 0.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 670.1 (2007): 190–205. Print.
APA
Holden, B., Illingworth, G., Franx, M., Blakeslee, J., Postman, M., Kelson, D., van der Wel, A., et al. (2007). Mass selection and the evolution of the morphology-density relation from z=0.8 to 0. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 670(1), 190–205.
Chicago author-date
Holden, BP, GD Illingworth, M Franx, JP Blakeslee, M Postman, DD Kelson, Arjen van der Wel, et al. 2007. “Mass Selection and the Evolution of the Morphology-density Relation from Z=0.8 to 0.” Astrophysical Journal 670 (1): 190–205.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Holden, BP, GD Illingworth, M Franx, JP Blakeslee, M Postman, DD Kelson, Arjen van der Wel, R Demarco, DK Magee, K-V Tran, A Zirm, H Ford, P Rosati, and N Homeier. 2007. “Mass Selection and the Evolution of the Morphology-density Relation from Z=0.8 to 0.” Astrophysical Journal 670 (1): 190–205.
Vancouver
1.
Holden B, Illingworth G, Franx M, Blakeslee J, Postman M, Kelson D, et al. Mass selection and the evolution of the morphology-density relation from z=0.8 to 0. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2007;670(1):190–205.
IEEE
[1]
B. Holden et al., “Mass selection and the evolution of the morphology-density relation from z=0.8 to 0,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 670, no. 1, pp. 190–205, 2007.
@article{8575468,
  abstract     = {We examined the morphology-density relations for galaxy samples selected by luminosity and by mass in each of five massive X-ray clusters from z = 0.023 to 0.83 for 674 spectroscopically confirmed members. Rest-frame optical colors and visual morphologies were obtained primarily from Hubble Space Telescope images. The visual morphologies ensure consistency with the extensive published results on galaxy evolution in dense environments. Morphologydensity relations (MDRs) are derived in each cluster from a complete, luminosity-selected sample of 452 galaxies with a magnitude limit M-V < M-V(star) + 1. The change in the early-type fraction with redshift matches previous work for massive clusters of galaxies. We performed a similar analysis, deriving MDRs for complete, mass-selected samples of 441 galaxies with a mass limit of 10(10.6) M-circle dot. Our mass limit includes faint objects, the equivalent of similar or equal to 1 mag below L-star for the red cluster galaxies, and encompasses similar or equal to 70% of the stellar mass in cluster galaxies. The MDRs in the massselected sample at densities of Sigma > 50 galaxies Mpc(-2) are similar to those in the luminosity-selected sample but show larger early-type fractions, with a weak indication of a shallower slope. However, the trend with redshift in the fraction of elliptical and S0 galaxies with masses > 10(10.6) M-circle dot differs significantly between the mass-and luminosityselected samples. The clear trend seen in the early-type fraction from z = 0 to similar or equal to 0.8 is not found in mass-selected samples. The early-type galaxy fraction changes much less and is consistent with being constant at 92% +/- 4% at Sigma > 500 galaxies Mpc(-2) and 83% +/- 3% at 50 galaxies Mpc(-2) < Sigma < 500 galaxies Mpc(-2). Given the mass limit in our sample, this suggests that galaxies of mass lower than > 10(10.6) M-circle dot play a significant role in the evolution of the early-type fraction in luminosity-selected samples; i. e., they are larger contributors to the luminosity-selected samples at higher redshifts than at low redshifts.},
  author       = {Holden, BP and Illingworth, GD and Franx, M and Blakeslee, JP and Postman, M and Kelson, DD and van der Wel, Arjen and Demarco, R and Magee, DK and Tran, K-V and Zirm, A and Ford, H and Rosati, P and Homeier, N},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES,CLUSTER CL 1358+62,MEDIUM-SENSITIVITY SURVEY,COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION,DIGITAL SKY SURVEY,HUBBLE-SPACE-TELESCOPE,CCD SURFACE PHOTOMETRY,X-RAY DATA,STAR-FORMATION,COMA CLUSTER,galaxies : clusters : general,galaxies : elliptical and lenticular,cD,galaxies : evolution galaxies : fundamental parameters,galaxies : photometry},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {190--205},
  title        = {Mass selection and the evolution of the morphology-density relation from z=0.8 to 0},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/521777},
  volume       = {670},
  year         = {2007},
}

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