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The evolution of the field and cluster morphology-density relation for mass-selected samples of galaxies

(2007) ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 670(1). p.206-220
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Abstract
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and photometric/ spectroscopic surveys in the GOODS- South field (the Chandra Deep Field-South, CDF- S) are used to construct volume- limited, stellar- mass- selected samples of galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 1. The CDF- S sample at 0.6 < z < 1.0 contains 207 galaxies complete down to M = 4 x 10(10) M-circle dot (for a "diet'' Salpeter initial mass function), corresponding to a luminosity limit for red galaxies of M-B = -20.1. The SDSS sample at 0: 020 < z < 0: 045 contains 2003 galaxies down to the same mass limit, which corresponds to MB = -19: 3 for red galaxies. Morphologies are determined with an automated method, using the Sersic parameter n and a measure of the residual from the model fits, called "bumpiness,'' to distinguish different morphologies. These classifications are verified with visual classifications. In agreement with previous studies, 65%-70% of the galaxies are located on the red sequence, both at z similar to 0.03 and at z similar to 0.8. Similarly, 65%-70% of the galaxies have n > 2.5. The fraction of E +/- S0 galaxies is 43% +/- 3% at z similar to 0: 03 and 48% +/- 7% at z similar to 0.8; i. e., it has not changed significantly since z similar to 0: 8. When combined with recent results for cluster galaxies in the same redshift range, we find that the morphology- density relation for galaxies more massive than 0.5M* has remained constant since at least z similar to 0.8. This implies that galaxies evolve in mass, morphology, and density such that the morphology- density relation does not change. In particular, the decline of star formation activity and the accompanying increase in the stellar mass density of red galaxies since z similar to 1 must happen without large changes in the early- type galaxy fraction in a given environment.
Keywords
DIGITAL SKY SURVEY, HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES, TO-LIGHT RATIOS, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION, STELLAR MASS, DEEP SURVEY, FORMATION HISTORIES, ASSEMBLY HISTORY, SPACE-TELESCOPE, galaxies : clusters : general, galaxies : elliptical and lenticular, cD, galaxies : evolution, galaxies : formation, galaxies : fundamental parameters, galaxies : general, galaxies : photometry

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MLA
van der Wel, Arjen, BP Holden, M Franx, et al. “The Evolution of the Field and Cluster Morphology-density Relation for Mass-selected Samples of Galaxies.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 670.1 (2007): 206–220. Print.
APA
van der Wel, A., Holden, B., Franx, M., Illingworth, G., Postman, M., Kelson, D., Labbe, I., et al. (2007). The evolution of the field and cluster morphology-density relation for mass-selected samples of galaxies. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 670(1), 206–220.
Chicago author-date
van der Wel, Arjen, BP Holden, M Franx, GD Illingworth, MP Postman, DD Kelson, I Labbe, S Wuyts, JP Blakeslee, and HC Ford. 2007. “The Evolution of the Field and Cluster Morphology-density Relation for Mass-selected Samples of Galaxies.” Astrophysical Journal 670 (1): 206–220.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
van der Wel, Arjen, BP Holden, M Franx, GD Illingworth, MP Postman, DD Kelson, I Labbe, S Wuyts, JP Blakeslee, and HC Ford. 2007. “The Evolution of the Field and Cluster Morphology-density Relation for Mass-selected Samples of Galaxies.” Astrophysical Journal 670 (1): 206–220.
Vancouver
1.
van der Wel A, Holden B, Franx M, Illingworth G, Postman M, Kelson D, et al. The evolution of the field and cluster morphology-density relation for mass-selected samples of galaxies. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2007;670(1):206–20.
IEEE
[1]
A. van der Wel et al., “The evolution of the field and cluster morphology-density relation for mass-selected samples of galaxies,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 670, no. 1, pp. 206–220, 2007.
@article{8575466,
  abstract     = {The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and photometric/ spectroscopic surveys in the GOODS- South field (the Chandra Deep Field-South, CDF- S) are used to construct volume- limited, stellar- mass- selected samples of galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 1. The CDF- S sample at 0.6 < z < 1.0 contains 207 galaxies complete down to M = 4 x 10(10) M-circle dot (for a "diet'' Salpeter initial mass function), corresponding to a luminosity limit for red galaxies of M-B = -20.1. The SDSS sample at 0: 020 < z < 0: 045 contains 2003 galaxies down to the same mass limit, which corresponds to MB = -19: 3 for red galaxies. Morphologies are determined with an automated method, using the Sersic parameter n and a measure of the residual from the model fits, called "bumpiness,'' to distinguish different morphologies. These classifications are verified with visual classifications. In agreement with previous studies, 65%-70% of the galaxies are located on the red sequence, both at z similar to 0.03 and at z similar to 0.8. Similarly, 65%-70% of the galaxies have n > 2.5. The fraction of E +/- S0 galaxies is 43% +/- 3% at z similar to 0: 03 and 48% +/- 7% at z similar to 0.8; i. e., it has not changed significantly since z similar to 0: 8. When combined with recent results for cluster galaxies in the same redshift range, we find that the morphology- density relation for galaxies more massive than 0.5M* has remained constant since at least z similar to 0.8. This implies that galaxies evolve in mass, morphology, and density such that the morphology- density relation does not change. In particular, the decline of star formation activity and the accompanying increase in the stellar mass density of red galaxies since z similar to 1 must happen without large changes in the early- type galaxy fraction in a given environment.},
  author       = {van der Wel, Arjen and Holden, BP and Franx, M and Illingworth, GD and Postman, MP and Kelson, DD and Labbe, I and Wuyts, S and Blakeslee, JP and Ford, HC},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {DIGITAL SKY SURVEY,HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES,STAR-FORMING GALAXIES,TO-LIGHT RATIOS,LUMINOSITY FUNCTION,STELLAR MASS,DEEP SURVEY,FORMATION HISTORIES,ASSEMBLY HISTORY,SPACE-TELESCOPE,galaxies : clusters : general,galaxies : elliptical and lenticular,cD,galaxies : evolution,galaxies : formation,galaxies : fundamental parameters,galaxies : general,galaxies : photometry},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {206--220},
  title        = {The evolution of the field and cluster morphology-density relation for mass-selected samples of galaxies},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/521783},
  volume       = {670},
  year         = {2007},
}

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