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The ellipticities of cluster early-type galaxies from z ∼ 1 to z ∼ 0 : no evolution in the overall distribution of bulge-to-disk ratios

(2009) ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 693(1). p.617-633
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Abstract
We have compiled a sample of early-type cluster galaxies from 0 < z < 1.3 and measured the evolution of their ellipticity distributions. Our sample contains 487 galaxies in 17 z > 0.3 clusters with high-quality space-based imaging and a comparable sample of 210 galaxies in 10 clusters at z < 0.05. We select early-type galaxies (elliptical and S0 galaxies) that fall within the cluster R(200), and which lie on the red-sequence in the magnitude range -19.3 > M(B) > -21, after correcting for luminosity evolution as measured by the fundamental plane. Our ellipticity measurements are made in a consistent manner over our whole sample. We perform extensive simulations to quantify the systematic and statistical errors, and find that it is crucial to use point-spread function (PSF)-corrected model fits; determinations of the ellipticity from Hubble Space Telescope image data that do not account for the PSF "blurring" are systematically and significantly biased to rounder ellipticities at redshifts z > 0.3. We find that neither the median ellipticity, nor the shape of the ellipticity distribution of cluster early-type galaxies evolves with redshift from z similar to 0 to z > 1 (i.e., over the last similar to 8 Gyr). The median ellipticity at z > 0.3 is statistically identical with that at z < 0.05, being higher by only 0.01 +/- 0.02 or 3 +/- 6%, while the distribution of ellipticities at z > 0.3 agrees with the shape of the z < 0.05 distribution at the 1-2% level (i.e., the probability that they are drawn from the same distribution is 98-99%). These results are strongly suggestive of an unchanging overall bulge-to-disk ratio distribution for cluster early-type galaxies over the last similar to 8 Gyr from z similar to 1 to z similar to 0. This result contrasts with that from visual classifications which show that the fraction of morphologically-selected disk-dominated early-type galaxies, or S0s, is significantly lower at z > 0.4 than at z similar to 0. We find that the median disk-dominated early-type, or S0, galaxy has a somewhat higher ellipticity at z > 0.3, suggesting that rounder S0s are being assigned as ellipticals. Taking the ellipticity measurements and assuming, as in all previous studies, that the intrinsic ellipticity distribution of both elliptical and S0 galaxies remains constant, then we conclude from the lack of evolution in the observed early-type ellipticity distribution that the relative fractions of ellipticals and S0s do not evolve from z similar to 1 to z = 0 for a red-sequence selected samples of galaxies in the cores of clusters of galaxies.
Keywords
MORPHOLOGY-DENSITY RELATION, COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION, HIGH-REDSHIFT, CLUSTERS, INTERMEDIATE-REDSHIFT, SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY, FUNDAMENTAL, PLANE, DISTANT CLUSTERS, RICH CLUSTERS, RED-SEQUENCE, COMA CLUSTER, galaxies: clusters: general, galaxies: clusters: individual (CL, 1226.9+3332), galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD, galaxies:, evolution, galaxies: fundamental parameters, galaxies: photometry

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MLA
Holden, BP, M Franx, GD Illingworth, et al. “The Ellipticities of Cluster Early-type Galaxies from z ∼ 1 to z ∼ 0 : No Evolution in the Overall Distribution of Bulge-to-disk Ratios.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 693.1 (2009): 617–633. Print.
APA
Holden, B., Franx, M., Illingworth, G., Postman, M., van der Wel, A., Kelson, D., Blakeslee, J., et al. (2009). The ellipticities of cluster early-type galaxies from z ∼ 1 to z ∼ 0 : no evolution in the overall distribution of bulge-to-disk ratios. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 693(1), 617–633.
Chicago author-date
Holden, BP, M Franx, GD Illingworth, M Postman, Arjen van der Wel, DD Kelson, JP Blakeslee, H Ford, R Demarco, and S Mei. 2009. “The Ellipticities of Cluster Early-type Galaxies from z ∼ 1 to z ∼ 0 : No Evolution in the Overall Distribution of Bulge-to-disk Ratios.” Astrophysical Journal 693 (1): 617–633.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Holden, BP, M Franx, GD Illingworth, M Postman, Arjen van der Wel, DD Kelson, JP Blakeslee, H Ford, R Demarco, and S Mei. 2009. “The Ellipticities of Cluster Early-type Galaxies from z ∼ 1 to z ∼ 0 : No Evolution in the Overall Distribution of Bulge-to-disk Ratios.” Astrophysical Journal 693 (1): 617–633.
Vancouver
1.
Holden B, Franx M, Illingworth G, Postman M, van der Wel A, Kelson D, et al. The ellipticities of cluster early-type galaxies from z ∼ 1 to z ∼ 0 : no evolution in the overall distribution of bulge-to-disk ratios. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2009;693(1):617–33.
IEEE
[1]
B. Holden et al., “The ellipticities of cluster early-type galaxies from z ∼ 1 to z ∼ 0 : no evolution in the overall distribution of bulge-to-disk ratios,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 693, no. 1, pp. 617–633, 2009.
@article{8575451,
  abstract     = {We have compiled a sample of early-type cluster galaxies from 0 < z < 1.3 and measured the evolution of their ellipticity distributions. Our sample contains 487 galaxies in 17 z > 0.3 clusters with high-quality space-based imaging and a comparable sample of 210 galaxies in 10 clusters at z < 0.05. We select early-type galaxies (elliptical and S0 galaxies) that fall within the cluster R(200), and which lie on the red-sequence in the magnitude range -19.3 > M(B) > -21, after correcting for luminosity evolution as measured by the fundamental plane. Our ellipticity measurements are made in a consistent manner over our whole sample. We perform extensive simulations to quantify the systematic and statistical errors, and find that it is crucial to use point-spread function (PSF)-corrected model fits; determinations of the ellipticity from Hubble Space Telescope image data that do not account for the PSF "blurring" are systematically and significantly biased to rounder ellipticities at redshifts z > 0.3. We find that neither the median ellipticity, nor the shape of the ellipticity distribution of cluster early-type galaxies evolves with redshift from z similar to 0 to z > 1 (i.e., over the last similar to 8 Gyr). The median ellipticity at z > 0.3 is statistically identical with that at z < 0.05, being higher by only 0.01 +/- 0.02 or 3 +/- 6%, while the distribution of ellipticities at z > 0.3 agrees with the shape of the z < 0.05 distribution at the 1-2% level (i.e., the probability that they are drawn from the same distribution is 98-99%). These results are strongly suggestive of an unchanging overall bulge-to-disk ratio distribution for cluster early-type galaxies over the last similar to 8 Gyr from z similar to 1 to z similar to 0. This result contrasts with that from visual classifications which show that the fraction of morphologically-selected disk-dominated early-type galaxies, or S0s, is significantly lower at z > 0.4 than at z similar to 0. We find that the median disk-dominated early-type, or S0, galaxy has a somewhat higher ellipticity at z > 0.3, suggesting that rounder S0s are being assigned as ellipticals. Taking the ellipticity measurements and assuming, as in all previous studies, that the intrinsic ellipticity distribution of both elliptical and S0 galaxies remains constant, then we conclude from the lack of evolution in the observed early-type ellipticity distribution that the relative fractions of ellipticals and S0s do not evolve from z similar to 1 to z = 0 for a red-sequence selected samples of galaxies in the cores of clusters of galaxies.},
  author       = {Holden, BP and Franx, M and Illingworth, GD and Postman, M and van der Wel, Arjen and Kelson, DD and Blakeslee, JP and Ford, H and Demarco, R and Mei, S},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {MORPHOLOGY-DENSITY RELATION,COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION,HIGH-REDSHIFT,CLUSTERS,INTERMEDIATE-REDSHIFT,SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY,FUNDAMENTAL,PLANE,DISTANT CLUSTERS,RICH CLUSTERS,RED-SEQUENCE,COMA CLUSTER,galaxies: clusters: general,galaxies: clusters: individual (CL,1226.9+3332),galaxies: elliptical and lenticular,cD,galaxies:,evolution,galaxies: fundamental parameters,galaxies: photometry},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {617--633},
  title        = {The ellipticities of cluster early-type galaxies from z ∼ 1 to z ∼ 0 : no evolution in the overall distribution of bulge-to-disk ratios},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/693/1/617},
  volume       = {693},
  year         = {2009},
}

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