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Characterization of the retina-induced relaxation in mice

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Abstract
Purpose: The retinal relaxing factor (RRF) is a continuously released factor from the retina that causes vasorelaxation, the identity and potential role in physiology of which remain largely unknown. Experiments were performed to find out whether the RRF-induced relaxation is influenced by serotonin, glutamate, L-cysteine, the cytochrome P450 pathway, the cyclooxygenase pathway, or oxidative stress. In addition, the sensitivity of retinal and non-retinal arteries towards the RRF was compared. Methods: In vitro tension measurements were performed on isolated mouse femoral or bovine retinal arteries to study the vasorelaxing effect of the RRF, induced by mouse or bovine retinas. Results: The presence of serotonin, glutamate, or L-cysteine did not alter the RRF-induced relaxation. Increasing oxidative stress by hydroquinone and diethyldithiocarbamic acid sodium salt enhanced the RRF response. Inhibition of the cytochrome P450 or the cyclooxygenase pathway did not cause any alteration. Surprisingly, the RRF-induced relaxation was enhanced by the presence of flufenamic acid or carbenoxolone. Furthermore, bringing retinal tissue in close contact with retinal or non-retinal arteries induced comparable relaxations. Conclusions: Serotonin, glutamate, L-cysteine, the cytochrome P450, and the cyclooxygenase pathway do not influence the RRF-induced relaxation and the RRF-induced relaxation seems to be resistant to oxidative stress. The mechanism responsible for the enhanced RRF-induced relaxation in the presence of flufenamic acid or carbenoxolone remains elusive and the RRF does not show more effectivity on retinal arteries.
Keywords
Retinal relaxing factor, Neurotransmitters, Cyclooxygenase, Cytochrome P450, Oxidative stress, Flufenamic acid, FLUFENAMIC ACID, CHANNEL MODULATORS, 2-AMINOETHOXYDIPHENYL BORATE, VASORELAXING FACTOR, METHYL PALMITATE, RELAXING FACTOR, GAP-JUNCTIONS, K-V, RAT, RECEPTORS

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Chicago
Vanden Daele, Laura, Charlotte Boydens, and Johan Van de Voorde. 2018. “Characterization of the Retina-induced Relaxation in Mice.” Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 256 (10): 1905–1912.
APA
Vanden Daele, L., Boydens, C., & Van de Voorde, J. (2018). Characterization of the retina-induced relaxation in mice. GRAEFES ARCHIVE FOR CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPHTHALMOLOGY, 256(10), 1905–1912.
Vancouver
1.
Vanden Daele L, Boydens C, Van de Voorde J. Characterization of the retina-induced relaxation in mice. GRAEFES ARCHIVE FOR CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPHTHALMOLOGY. 2018;256(10):1905–12.
MLA
Vanden Daele, Laura, Charlotte Boydens, and Johan Van de Voorde. “Characterization of the Retina-induced Relaxation in Mice.” GRAEFES ARCHIVE FOR CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPHTHALMOLOGY 256.10 (2018): 1905–1912. Print.
@article{8574178,
  abstract     = {Purpose: The retinal relaxing factor (RRF) is a continuously released factor from the retina that causes vasorelaxation, the identity and potential role in physiology of which remain largely unknown. Experiments were performed to find out whether the RRF-induced relaxation is influenced by serotonin, glutamate, L-cysteine, the cytochrome P450 pathway, the cyclooxygenase pathway, or oxidative stress. In addition, the sensitivity of retinal and non-retinal arteries towards the RRF was compared.
Methods: In vitro tension measurements were performed on isolated mouse femoral or bovine retinal arteries to study the vasorelaxing effect of the RRF, induced by mouse or bovine retinas.
Results: The presence of serotonin, glutamate, or L-cysteine did not alter the RRF-induced relaxation. Increasing oxidative stress by hydroquinone and diethyldithiocarbamic acid sodium salt enhanced the RRF response. Inhibition of the cytochrome P450 or the cyclooxygenase pathway did not cause any alteration. Surprisingly, the RRF-induced relaxation was enhanced by the presence of flufenamic acid or carbenoxolone. Furthermore, bringing retinal tissue in close contact with retinal or non-retinal arteries induced comparable relaxations.
Conclusions: Serotonin, glutamate, L-cysteine, the cytochrome P450, and the cyclooxygenase pathway do not influence the RRF-induced relaxation and the RRF-induced relaxation seems to be resistant to oxidative stress. The mechanism responsible for the enhanced RRF-induced relaxation in the presence of flufenamic acid or carbenoxolone remains elusive and the RRF does not show more effectivity on retinal arteries.},
  author       = {Vanden Daele, Laura and Boydens, Charlotte and Van de Voorde, Johan},
  issn         = {0721-832X},
  journal      = {GRAEFES ARCHIVE FOR CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPHTHALMOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {1905--1912},
  title        = {Characterization of the retina-induced relaxation in mice},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-018-4096-4},
  volume       = {256},
  year         = {2018},
}

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