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Changes in children’s television and computer time according to parental education, parental income and ethnicity : a 6-year longitudinal EYHS study

(2018) PLOS ONE. 13(9).
Author
Organization
Abstract
Objectives : To investigate changes in children's television and computer time according to three socioeconomic status (SES) indicators. Design : Prospective cohort study. Methods : Data were drawn from the European Youth Heart Study and included longitudinal data collected in 1997 and 2003 in Denmark. Television and computer time were self-reported by children. Parental education, income and ethnicity were parent-reported. Baseline data were available for 549 children (47.0% boys, 9.6 years). Generalized linear mixed models analyzed whether changes in television and computer time from baseline to follow-up differed according to the SES-indicators. Result : TV viewing time increased with 25% over time (ExpB = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04-1.50). At both time points, children with two higher educated parents viewed 25% less hours of television than children with no higher educated parents (ExpB = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.60-0.94) and one higher educated parent (ExpB = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97). Among children with no higher educated parents the odds of being in a higher category of computer time increased with 80% over time (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.24-2.60). Among children with two higher educated parents the odds of being in a higher category of computer time decreased with 45% over time (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32-0.94). The association with ethnicity showed that white children had 42% lower odds (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.34-1.00) of being in a higher category of computer time than non-white children. No significant associations were found for parental income. Conclusions : The most important SES measure of screen-based behaviors in children was parental education. Ethnicity was only associated with computer time. Financial resources were less relevant for changes in television viewing and computer use.
Keywords
physical activity & health, SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, SOCIOECONOMIC POSITION, HEALTH OUTCOMES, YOUTH, ASSOCIATIONS, ADOLESCENTS, ADULTS

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MLA
De Craemer, Marieke, Maïté Verloigne, Ariane Ghekiere, et al. “Changes in Children’s Television and Computer Time According to Parental Education, Parental Income and Ethnicity : a 6-year Longitudinal EYHS Study.” PLOS ONE 13.9 (2018): n. pag. Print.
APA
De Craemer, M., Verloigne, M., Ghekiere, A., Loyen, A., Dargent-Molina, P., Brug, J., Lien, N., et al. (2018). Changes in children’s television and computer time according to parental education, parental income and ethnicity : a 6-year longitudinal EYHS study. PLOS ONE, 13(9).
Chicago author-date
De Craemer, Marieke, Maïté Verloigne, Ariane Ghekiere, Anne Loyen, Patricia Dargent-Molina, Johannes Brug, Nanna Lien, et al. 2018. “Changes in Children’s Television and Computer Time According to Parental Education, Parental Income and Ethnicity : a 6-year Longitudinal EYHS Study.” Plos One 13 (9).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Craemer, Marieke, Maïté Verloigne, Ariane Ghekiere, Anne Loyen, Patricia Dargent-Molina, Johannes Brug, Nanna Lien, Karsten Froberg, Niels Wedderkopp, Sebastien Chastin, Greet Cardon, and Jelle Van Cauwenberg. 2018. “Changes in Children’s Television and Computer Time According to Parental Education, Parental Income and Ethnicity : a 6-year Longitudinal EYHS Study.” Plos One 13 (9).
Vancouver
1.
De Craemer M, Verloigne M, Ghekiere A, Loyen A, Dargent-Molina P, Brug J, et al. Changes in children’s television and computer time according to parental education, parental income and ethnicity : a 6-year longitudinal EYHS study. PLOS ONE. 2018;13(9).
IEEE
[1]
M. De Craemer et al., “Changes in children’s television and computer time according to parental education, parental income and ethnicity : a 6-year longitudinal EYHS study,” PLOS ONE, vol. 13, no. 9, 2018.
@article{8574158,
  abstract     = {Objectives : To investigate changes in children's television and computer time according to three socioeconomic status (SES) indicators. 
Design : Prospective cohort study. 
Methods : Data were drawn from the European Youth Heart Study and included longitudinal data collected in 1997 and 2003 in Denmark. Television and computer time were self-reported by children. Parental education, income and ethnicity were parent-reported. Baseline data were available for 549 children (47.0% boys, 9.6 years). Generalized linear mixed models analyzed whether changes in television and computer time from baseline to follow-up differed according to the SES-indicators. 
Result : TV viewing time increased with 25% over time (ExpB = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04-1.50). At both time points, children with two higher educated parents viewed 25% less hours of television than children with no higher educated parents (ExpB = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.60-0.94) and one higher educated parent (ExpB = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97). Among children with no higher educated parents the odds of being in a higher category of computer time increased with 80% over time (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.24-2.60). Among children with two higher educated parents the odds of being in a higher category of computer time decreased with 45% over time (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32-0.94). The association with ethnicity showed that white children had 42% lower odds (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.34-1.00) of being in a higher category of computer time than non-white children. No significant associations were found for parental income. 
Conclusions : The most important SES measure of screen-based behaviors in children was parental education. Ethnicity was only associated with computer time. Financial resources were less relevant for changes in television viewing and computer use.},
  articleno    = {e0203592},
  author       = {De Craemer, Marieke and Verloigne, Maïté and Ghekiere, Ariane and Loyen, Anne and Dargent-Molina, Patricia and Brug, Johannes and Lien, Nanna and Froberg, Karsten and Wedderkopp, Niels and Chastin, Sebastien and Cardon, Greet and Van Cauwenberg, Jelle},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keywords     = {physical activity & health,SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR,PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY,SOCIOECONOMIC POSITION,HEALTH OUTCOMES,YOUTH,ASSOCIATIONS,ADOLESCENTS,ADULTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {13},
  title        = {Changes in children’s television and computer time according to parental education, parental income and ethnicity : a 6-year longitudinal EYHS study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203592},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {2018},
}

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