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Assessing the influence of pod storage on sugar and free amino acid profiles and the implications on some Maillard reaction related flavor volatiles in Forastero cocoa beans

(2018) FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL. 111. p.607-620
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Abstract
The practice of pod storage (PS) has been applied in many cocoa producing countries, especially by Ghanaian farmers over the years. However, the study of PS has not received much attention, hence, until now, its potential impact on specific flavor precursor development and implications on the flavor of cocoa beans still remains uncovered. The study was therefore aimed at exploring this possibility through physico-chemical and flavor precursor analyses, carried out on equally fermented and dried pod stored (0, 3 and 7 days) Ghanaian cocoa beans. Flavor analysis was also conducted on equally roasted pod stored cocoa beans. Through visual assessment of the pods, pulp and beans, the compelling impact of PS on fermentation index (FI) and nib acidity could be demonstrated by the various biochemical and physical changes such as respiration, moisture reduction, and cellular degradation, occurring during the process. Whereas the entire reaction of sugar degradation may be deemed complex, a clear relationship between the FI, nib acidity and the glucose content was observed. Also, PS was found to increase with marginal increase in total reducing sugars (glucose and fructose). Although the concentration of free amino acids was directly proportional to the duration of PS, within the framework of this study, a significant difference (p < .05) was only observed in the case of extended duration (7 days). Overall, 7 PS seemed to have enhanced the formation of more volatiles. This was followed by 0 PS and finally 3 PS. Suggestively, these findings could provide some indications in explaining the typical flavor profiles of the Ghanaian cocoa beans, considering the fact that 87.8% of Ghanaian farmers adhere to this practice. Meanwhile, for the chocolate industry, the surging demand for cocoa/chocolate products exhibiting unique flavors, could be partly addressed by adopting PS as a tool for varietizing the flavor capacity of "bulk" cocoa through the expression or suppression of specific flavor precursors in the raw material on the farm level, which comes with almost no additional cost.
Keywords
Cocoa, Pod storage, Flavor precursors, Amino acids, Reducing sugars, Flavor/aroma volatile, THEOBROMA-CACAO L., AROMA PRECURSORS, FERMENTATION, QUALITY, TIME, PULP, CARBOXYPEPTIDASE, CHOCOLATE, ORIGINS, FOOD

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MLA
Hinneh, Michael et al. “Assessing the Influence of Pod Storage on Sugar and Free Amino Acid Profiles and the Implications on Some Maillard Reaction Related Flavor Volatiles in Forastero Cocoa Beans.” FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL 111 (2018): 607–620. Print.
APA
Hinneh, M., Semanhyia, E., Van de Walle, D., De Winne, A., Tzompa Sosa, D. A., Scalone, G. L., De Meulenaer, B., et al. (2018). Assessing the influence of pod storage on sugar and free amino acid profiles and the implications on some Maillard reaction related flavor volatiles in Forastero cocoa beans. FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, 111, 607–620.
Chicago author-date
Hinneh, Michael, Evangeline Semanhyia, Davy Van de Walle, Ann De Winne, Daylan Amelia Tzompa Sosa, Gustavo Luis Scalone, Bruno De Meulenaer, et al. 2018. “Assessing the Influence of Pod Storage on Sugar and Free Amino Acid Profiles and the Implications on Some Maillard Reaction Related Flavor Volatiles in Forastero Cocoa Beans.” Food Research International 111: 607–620.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Hinneh, Michael, Evangeline Semanhyia, Davy Van de Walle, Ann De Winne, Daylan Amelia Tzompa Sosa, Gustavo Luis Scalone, Bruno De Meulenaer, Kathy Messens, Jim Van Durme, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Luc De Cooman, and Koen Dewettinck. 2018. “Assessing the Influence of Pod Storage on Sugar and Free Amino Acid Profiles and the Implications on Some Maillard Reaction Related Flavor Volatiles in Forastero Cocoa Beans.” Food Research International 111: 607–620.
Vancouver
1.
Hinneh M, Semanhyia E, Van de Walle D, De Winne A, Tzompa Sosa DA, Scalone GL, et al. Assessing the influence of pod storage on sugar and free amino acid profiles and the implications on some Maillard reaction related flavor volatiles in Forastero cocoa beans. FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL. 2018;111:607–20.
IEEE
[1]
M. Hinneh et al., “Assessing the influence of pod storage on sugar and free amino acid profiles and the implications on some Maillard reaction related flavor volatiles in Forastero cocoa beans,” FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, vol. 111, pp. 607–620, 2018.
@article{8573685,
  abstract     = {The practice of pod storage (PS) has been applied in many cocoa producing countries, especially by Ghanaian farmers over the years. However, the study of PS has not received much attention, hence, until now, its potential impact on specific flavor precursor development and implications on the flavor of cocoa beans still remains uncovered. The study was therefore aimed at exploring this possibility through physico-chemical and flavor precursor analyses, carried out on equally fermented and dried pod stored (0, 3 and 7 days) Ghanaian cocoa beans. Flavor analysis was also conducted on equally roasted pod stored cocoa beans. Through visual assessment of the pods, pulp and beans, the compelling impact of PS on fermentation index (FI) and nib acidity could be demonstrated by the various biochemical and physical changes such as respiration, moisture reduction, and cellular degradation, occurring during the process. Whereas the entire reaction of sugar degradation may be deemed complex, a clear relationship between the FI, nib acidity and the glucose content was observed. Also, PS was found to increase with marginal increase in total reducing sugars (glucose and fructose). Although the concentration of free amino acids was directly proportional to the duration of PS, within the framework of this study, a significant difference (p < .05) was only observed in the case of extended duration (7 days). Overall, 7 PS seemed to have enhanced the formation of more volatiles. This was followed by 0 PS and finally 3 PS. Suggestively, these findings could provide some indications in explaining the typical flavor profiles of the Ghanaian cocoa beans, considering the fact that 87.8% of Ghanaian farmers adhere to this practice. Meanwhile, for the chocolate industry, the surging demand for cocoa/chocolate products exhibiting unique flavors, could be partly addressed by adopting PS as a tool for varietizing the flavor capacity of "bulk" cocoa through the expression or suppression of specific flavor precursors in the raw material on the farm level, which comes with almost no additional cost.},
  author       = {Hinneh, Michael and Semanhyia, Evangeline and Van de Walle, Davy and De Winne, Ann and Tzompa Sosa, Daylan Amelia and Scalone, Gustavo Luis and De Meulenaer, Bruno and Messens, Kathy and Van Durme, Jim and Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene and De Cooman, Luc and Dewettinck, Koen},
  issn         = {0963-9969},
  journal      = {FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL},
  keywords     = {Cocoa,Pod storage,Flavor precursors,Amino acids,Reducing sugars,Flavor/aroma volatile,THEOBROMA-CACAO L.,AROMA PRECURSORS,FERMENTATION,QUALITY,TIME,PULP,CARBOXYPEPTIDASE,CHOCOLATE,ORIGINS,FOOD},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {607--620},
  title        = {Assessing the influence of pod storage on sugar and free amino acid profiles and the implications on some Maillard reaction related flavor volatiles in Forastero cocoa beans},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.05.064},
  volume       = {111},
  year         = {2018},
}

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