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Multi-scale laboratory routine in the efficacy assessment of conservative products for natural stones

(2018) METHODSX. 5. p.1095-1101
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Abstract
The evaluation of conservative treatments' efficacy on natural building stones are usually based on standard recommendation routines finalized to evaluate compatibility and harmfulness of products in turn of the substrate. However, the visualization and the quantification of products inside pore structure of natural stones is not immediate through standard tests, so that imaging and advanced techniques are recently proposed in material conservation field to improve knowledge on penetration depth, modification of pore-air interface at different scale and monitor dynamic absorption processes. Moreover, natural stones are usually characterized by complex structure, which changes due to conservative treatments have to be inspected at different scale (from micrometer to nanometer). In this prospective, the assessment of laboratory practices able to integrate multiscale methods and give back a complete overview on interaction between new conservative formulates and natural stones is of high interest. In this paper, we propose a methodological routine for efficacy assessment of conservative products, incorporating classical and innovative nondestructive techniques. Validation of the workflow has been verified on a high porous natural stone treated with new hybrid formulates appropriately customized for conservation issues. The study intends to add new insights on problems related to consolidation of high porous carbonate stone, application methods in consolidating natural stones and methods to evaluate efficacy of new products. A multi-scale laboratory investigation procedure is proposed by integrating standard and innovative nondestructive methods. Merits and limits of each applied method are discussed during validation. The possibility to incorporate standard routines and/or substitute destructive testing with non-destructive ones seem to be a valid alternative to evaluate efficiency and monitor behavior of stones treated with consolidating products.
Keywords
Natural stones, Conservative treatments, Consolidants, Efficacy, NEUTRON-RADIOGRAPHY, BUILDING STONES, POROSITY, CT

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Chicago
Raneri, S, G Barone, P Mazzoleni, I Alfieri, L Bergamonti, Tim De Kock, Veerle Cnudde, et al. 2018. “Multi-scale Laboratory Routine in the Efficacy Assessment of Conservative Products for Natural Stones.” Methodsx 5: 1095–1101.
APA
Raneri, S, Barone, G., Mazzoleni, P., Alfieri, I., Bergamonti, L., De Kock, T., Cnudde, V., et al. (2018). Multi-scale laboratory routine in the efficacy assessment of conservative products for natural stones. METHODSX, 5, 1095–1101.
Vancouver
1.
Raneri S, Barone G, Mazzoleni P, Alfieri I, Bergamonti L, De Kock T, et al. Multi-scale laboratory routine in the efficacy assessment of conservative products for natural stones. METHODSX. 2018;5:1095–101.
MLA
Raneri, S, G Barone, P Mazzoleni, et al. “Multi-scale Laboratory Routine in the Efficacy Assessment of Conservative Products for Natural Stones.” METHODSX 5 (2018): 1095–1101. Print.
@article{8573629,
  abstract     = {The evaluation of conservative treatments' efficacy on natural building stones are usually based on standard recommendation routines finalized to evaluate compatibility and harmfulness of products in turn of the substrate. However, the visualization and the quantification of products inside pore structure of natural stones is not immediate through standard tests, so that imaging and advanced techniques are recently proposed in material conservation field to improve knowledge on penetration depth, modification of pore-air interface at different scale and monitor dynamic absorption processes. Moreover, natural stones are usually characterized by complex structure, which changes due to conservative treatments have to be inspected at different scale (from micrometer to nanometer). 
In this prospective, the assessment of laboratory practices able to integrate multiscale methods and give back a complete overview on interaction between new conservative formulates and natural stones is of high interest. 
In this paper, we propose a methodological routine for efficacy assessment of conservative products, incorporating classical and innovative nondestructive techniques. Validation of the workflow has been verified on a high porous natural stone treated with new hybrid formulates appropriately customized for conservation issues. 
The study intends to add new insights on problems related to consolidation of high porous carbonate stone, application methods in consolidating natural stones and methods to evaluate efficacy of new products. 
A multi-scale laboratory investigation procedure is proposed by integrating standard and innovative nondestructive methods. Merits and limits of each applied method are discussed during validation. 
The possibility to incorporate standard routines and/or substitute destructive testing with non-destructive ones seem to be a valid alternative to evaluate efficiency and monitor behavior of stones treated with consolidating products.},
  author       = {Raneri, S and Barone, G and Mazzoleni, P and Alfieri, I and Bergamonti, L and De Kock, Tim and Cnudde, Veerle and Lottici, PP and Lorenzi, A and Predieri, G and Rabot, E and Teixeira, J},
  issn         = {2215-0161},
  journal      = {METHODSX},
  keyword      = {Natural stones,Conservative treatments,Consolidants,Efficacy,NEUTRON-RADIOGRAPHY,BUILDING STONES,POROSITY,CT},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {1095--1101},
  title        = {Multi-scale laboratory routine in the efficacy assessment of conservative products for natural stones},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2018.08.013},
  volume       = {5},
  year         = {2018},
}

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