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Sanitation of blackwater via sequential wetland and electrochemical treatment

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Abstract
The discharge of untreated septage is a major health hazard in countries that lack sewer systems and centralized sewage treatment. Small-scale, point-source treatment units are needed for water treatment and disinfection due to the distributed nature of this discharge, i.e., from single households or community toilets. In this study, a high-rate-wetland coupled with an electrochemical system was developed and demonstrated to treat septage at full scale. The full-scale wetland on average removed 79 +/- 2% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 30 +/- 5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), 58 +/- 4% total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and 78 +/- 4% orthophosphate. Pathogens such as coliforms were not fully removed after passage through the wetland. Therefore, the wetland effluent was subsequently treated with an electrochemical cell with a cation exchange membrane where the effluent first passed through the anodic chamber. This lead to in situ chlorine or other oxidant production under acidifying conditions. Upon a residence time of at least 6 h of this anodic effluent in a buffer tank, the fluid was sent through the cathodic chamber where pH neutralization occurred. Overall, the combined system removed 89 +/- 1% COD, 36 +/- 5% TKN, 70 +/- 2% TAN, and 87 +/- 2% ortho-phosphate. An average 5-log unit reduction in coliform was observed. The energy input for the integrated system was on average 16 +/- 3 kWh/m(3), and 11 kWh/m(3) under optimal conditions. Further research is required to optimize the system in terms of stability and energy consumption.
Keywords
WASTE-WATER TREATMENT, HYPOCHLORITE PRODUCTION, CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS, DISINFECTION, ELECTROLYSIS, REMOVAL, AMMONIA, PH, INACTIVATION, PERFORMANCE

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MLA
Talekar, Guruprasad V., et al. “Sanitation of Blackwater via Sequential Wetland and Electrochemical Treatment.” NPJ CLEAN WATER, vol. 1, no. 1, 2018, doi:10.1038/s41545-018-0014-x.
APA
Talekar, G. V., Sharma, P., Yadav, A., Clauwaert, P., Rabaey, K., & Mutnuri, S. (2018). Sanitation of blackwater via sequential wetland and electrochemical treatment. NPJ CLEAN WATER, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41545-018-0014-x
Chicago author-date
Talekar, Guruprasad V, Priya Sharma, Anant Yadav, Peter Clauwaert, Korneel Rabaey, and Srikanth Mutnuri. 2018. “Sanitation of Blackwater via Sequential Wetland and Electrochemical Treatment.” NPJ CLEAN WATER 1 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41545-018-0014-x.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Talekar, Guruprasad V, Priya Sharma, Anant Yadav, Peter Clauwaert, Korneel Rabaey, and Srikanth Mutnuri. 2018. “Sanitation of Blackwater via Sequential Wetland and Electrochemical Treatment.” NPJ CLEAN WATER 1 (1). doi:10.1038/s41545-018-0014-x.
Vancouver
1.
Talekar GV, Sharma P, Yadav A, Clauwaert P, Rabaey K, Mutnuri S. Sanitation of blackwater via sequential wetland and electrochemical treatment. NPJ CLEAN WATER. 2018;1(1).
IEEE
[1]
G. V. Talekar, P. Sharma, A. Yadav, P. Clauwaert, K. Rabaey, and S. Mutnuri, “Sanitation of blackwater via sequential wetland and electrochemical treatment,” NPJ CLEAN WATER, vol. 1, no. 1, 2018.
@article{8573176,
  abstract     = {{The discharge of untreated septage is a major health hazard in countries that lack sewer systems and centralized sewage treatment. Small-scale, point-source treatment units are needed for water treatment and disinfection due to the distributed nature of this discharge, i.e., from single households or community toilets. In this study, a high-rate-wetland coupled with an electrochemical system was developed and demonstrated to treat septage at full scale. The full-scale wetland on average removed 79 +/- 2% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 30 +/- 5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), 58 +/- 4% total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and 78 +/- 4% orthophosphate. Pathogens such as coliforms were not fully removed after passage through the wetland. Therefore, the wetland effluent was subsequently treated with an electrochemical cell with a cation exchange membrane where the effluent first passed through the anodic chamber. This lead to in situ chlorine or other oxidant production under acidifying conditions. Upon a residence time of at least 6 h of this anodic effluent in a buffer tank, the fluid was sent through the cathodic chamber where pH neutralization occurred. Overall, the combined system removed 89 +/- 1% COD, 36 +/- 5% TKN, 70 +/- 2% TAN, and 87 +/- 2% ortho-phosphate. An average 5-log unit reduction in coliform was observed. The energy input for the integrated system was on average 16 +/- 3 kWh/m(3), and 11 kWh/m(3) under optimal conditions. Further research is required to optimize the system in terms of stability and energy consumption.}},
  articleno    = {{14}},
  author       = {{Talekar, Guruprasad V and Sharma, Priya and Yadav, Anant and Clauwaert, Peter and Rabaey, Korneel and Mutnuri, Srikanth}},
  issn         = {{2059-7037}},
  journal      = {{NPJ CLEAN WATER}},
  keywords     = {{WASTE-WATER TREATMENT,HYPOCHLORITE PRODUCTION,CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS,DISINFECTION,ELECTROLYSIS,REMOVAL,AMMONIA,PH,INACTIVATION,PERFORMANCE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{9}},
  title        = {{Sanitation of blackwater via sequential wetland and electrochemical treatment}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41545-018-0014-x}},
  volume       = {{1}},
  year         = {{2018}},
}

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