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Sanitation of blackwater via sequential wetland and electrochemical treatment

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Abstract
The discharge of untreated septage is a major health hazard in countries that lack sewer systems and centralized sewage treatment. Small-scale, point-source treatment units are needed for water treatment and disinfection due to the distributed nature of this discharge, i.e., from single households or community toilets. In this study, a high-rate-wetland coupled with an electrochemical system was developed and demonstrated to treat septage at full scale. The full-scale wetland on average removed 79 +/- 2% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 30 +/- 5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), 58 +/- 4% total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and 78 +/- 4% orthophosphate. Pathogens such as coliforms were not fully removed after passage through the wetland. Therefore, the wetland effluent was subsequently treated with an electrochemical cell with a cation exchange membrane where the effluent first passed through the anodic chamber. This lead to in situ chlorine or other oxidant production under acidifying conditions. Upon a residence time of at least 6 h of this anodic effluent in a buffer tank, the fluid was sent through the cathodic chamber where pH neutralization occurred. Overall, the combined system removed 89 +/- 1% COD, 36 +/- 5% TKN, 70 +/- 2% TAN, and 87 +/- 2% ortho-phosphate. An average 5-log unit reduction in coliform was observed. The energy input for the integrated system was on average 16 +/- 3 kWh/m(3), and 11 kWh/m(3) under optimal conditions. Further research is required to optimize the system in terms of stability and energy consumption.
Keywords
WASTE-WATER TREATMENT, HYPOCHLORITE PRODUCTION, CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS, DISINFECTION, ELECTROLYSIS, REMOVAL, AMMONIA, PH, INACTIVATION, PERFORMANCE

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Chicago
Talekar, Guruprasad V, Priya Sharma, Anant Yadav, Peter Clauwaert, Korneel Rabaey, and Srikanth Mutnuri. 2018. “Sanitation of Blackwater via Sequential Wetland and Electrochemical Treatment.” Npj Clean Water 1 (1).
APA
Talekar, G. V., Sharma, P., Yadav, A., Clauwaert, P., Rabaey, K., & Mutnuri, S. (2018). Sanitation of blackwater via sequential wetland and electrochemical treatment. NPJ CLEAN WATER, 1(1).
Vancouver
1.
Talekar GV, Sharma P, Yadav A, Clauwaert P, Rabaey K, Mutnuri S. Sanitation of blackwater via sequential wetland and electrochemical treatment. NPJ CLEAN WATER. 2018;1(1).
MLA
Talekar, Guruprasad V et al. “Sanitation of Blackwater via Sequential Wetland and Electrochemical Treatment.” NPJ CLEAN WATER 1.1 (2018): n. pag. Print.
@article{8573176,
  abstract     = {The discharge of untreated septage is a major health hazard in countries that lack sewer systems and centralized sewage treatment. Small-scale, point-source treatment units are needed for water treatment and disinfection due to the distributed nature of this discharge, i.e., from single households or community toilets. In this study, a high-rate-wetland coupled with an electrochemical system was developed and demonstrated to treat septage at full scale. The full-scale wetland on average removed 79 +/- 2% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 30 +/- 5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), 58 +/- 4% total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and 78 +/- 4% orthophosphate. Pathogens such as coliforms were not fully removed after passage through the wetland. Therefore, the wetland effluent was subsequently treated with an electrochemical cell with a cation exchange membrane where the effluent first passed through the anodic chamber. This lead to in situ chlorine or other oxidant production under acidifying conditions. Upon a residence time of at least 6 h of this anodic effluent in a buffer tank, the fluid was sent through the cathodic chamber where pH neutralization occurred. Overall, the combined system removed 89 +/- 1% COD, 36 +/- 5% TKN, 70 +/- 2% TAN, and 87 +/- 2% ortho-phosphate. An average 5-log unit reduction in coliform was observed. The energy input for the integrated system was on average 16 +/- 3 kWh/m(3), and 11 kWh/m(3) under optimal conditions. Further research is required to optimize the system in terms of stability and energy consumption.},
  articleno    = {14},
  author       = {Talekar, Guruprasad V and Sharma, Priya and Yadav, Anant and Clauwaert, Peter and Rabaey, Korneel and Mutnuri, Srikanth},
  issn         = {2059-7037},
  journal      = {NPJ CLEAN WATER},
  keywords     = {WASTE-WATER TREATMENT,HYPOCHLORITE PRODUCTION,CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS,DISINFECTION,ELECTROLYSIS,REMOVAL,AMMONIA,PH,INACTIVATION,PERFORMANCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {9},
  title        = {Sanitation of blackwater via sequential wetland and electrochemical treatment},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41545-018-0014-x},
  volume       = {1},
  year         = {2018},
}

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