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Physics-dynamics coupling in weather, climate and earth system models : challenges and recent progress

(2018) MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW. 146(11). p.3505-3544
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Abstract
Numerical weather, climate, or Earth system models involve the coupling of components. At a broad level, these components can be classified as the resolved fluid dynamics, unresolved fluid dynamical aspects (i.e., those represented by physical parameterizations such as subgrid-scale mixing), and nonfluid dynamical aspects such as radiation and microphysical processes. Typically, each component is developed, at least initially, independently. Once development is mature, the components are coupled to deliver a model of the required complexity. The implementation of the coupling can have a significant impact on the model. As the error associated with each component decreases, the errors introduced by the coupling will eventually dominate. Hence, any improvement in one of the components is unlikely to improve the performance of the overall system. The challenges associated with combining the components to create a coherent model are here termed physics-dynamics coupling. The issue goes beyond the coupling between the parameterizations and the resolved fluid dynamics. This paper highlights recent progress and some of the current challenges. It focuses on three objectives: to illustrate the phenomenology of the coupling problem with references to examples in the literature, to show how the problem can be analyzed, and to create awareness of the issue across the disciplines and specializations. The topics addressed are different ways of advancing full models in time, approaches to understanding the role of the coupling and evaluation of approaches, coupling ocean and atmosphere models, thermodynamic compatibility between model components, and emerging issues such as those that arise as model resolutions increase and/or models use variable resolutions.
Keywords
Coupled models, Model comparison, Model errors, Model evaluation, performance, Numerical analysis, modeling, Parameterization, COMMUNITY ATMOSPHERE MODEL, GENERAL-CIRCULATION MODELS, VARIABLE-RESOLUTION CESM, ORDER TURBULENCE CLOSURE, PLANETARY BOUNDARY-LAYER, PDF-BASED MODEL, PART I, SPECTRAL ELEMENT, GLOBAL-MODEL, OCEAN MODEL

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MLA
Gross, Markus, Hui Wan, Philip J Rasch, et al. “Physics-dynamics Coupling in Weather, Climate and Earth System Models : Challenges and Recent Progress.” MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW 146.11 (2018): 3505–3544. Print.
APA
Gross, Markus, Wan, H., Rasch, P. J., Caldwell, P. M., Williamson, D. L., Klocke, D., Jablonowski, C., et al. (2018). Physics-dynamics coupling in weather, climate and earth system models : challenges and recent progress. MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW, 146(11), 3505–3544.
Chicago author-date
Gross, Markus, Hui Wan, Philip J Rasch, Peter M Caldwell, David L Williamson, Daniel Klocke, Christiane Jablonowski, et al. 2018. “Physics-dynamics Coupling in Weather, Climate and Earth System Models : Challenges and Recent Progress.” Monthly Weather Review 146 (11): 3505–3544.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gross, Markus, Hui Wan, Philip J Rasch, Peter M Caldwell, David L Williamson, Daniel Klocke, Christiane Jablonowski, Diana R Thatcher, Nigel Wood, Mike Cullen, Bob Beare, Martin Willett, Florian Lemarié, Eric Blayo, Sylvie Malardel, Piet Termonia, Almut Gassmann, Peter H Lauritzen, Hans Johansen, Colin M Zarzycki, Koichi Sakaguchi, and Ruby Leung. 2018. “Physics-dynamics Coupling in Weather, Climate and Earth System Models : Challenges and Recent Progress.” Monthly Weather Review 146 (11): 3505–3544.
Vancouver
1.
Gross M, Wan H, Rasch PJ, Caldwell PM, Williamson DL, Klocke D, et al. Physics-dynamics coupling in weather, climate and earth system models : challenges and recent progress. MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW. 2018;146(11):3505–44.
IEEE
[1]
M. Gross et al., “Physics-dynamics coupling in weather, climate and earth system models : challenges and recent progress,” MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW, vol. 146, no. 11, pp. 3505–3544, 2018.
@article{8571300,
  abstract     = {Numerical weather, climate, or Earth system models involve the coupling of components. At a broad level, these components can be classified as the resolved fluid dynamics, unresolved fluid dynamical aspects (i.e., those represented by physical parameterizations such as subgrid-scale mixing), and nonfluid dynamical aspects such as radiation and microphysical processes. Typically, each component is developed, at least initially, independently. Once development is mature, the components are coupled to deliver a model of the required complexity. The implementation of the coupling can have a significant impact on the model. As the error associated with each component decreases, the errors introduced by the coupling will eventually dominate. Hence, any improvement in one of the components is unlikely to improve the performance of the overall system. The challenges associated with combining the components to create a coherent model are here termed physics-dynamics coupling. The issue goes beyond the coupling between the parameterizations and the resolved fluid dynamics. This paper highlights recent progress and some of the current challenges. It focuses on three objectives: to illustrate the phenomenology of the coupling problem with references to examples in the literature, to show how the problem can be analyzed, and to create awareness of the issue across the disciplines and specializations. The topics addressed are different ways of advancing full models in time, approaches to understanding the role of the coupling and evaluation of approaches, coupling ocean and atmosphere models, thermodynamic compatibility between model components, and emerging issues such as those that arise as model resolutions increase and/or models use variable resolutions.},
  author       = {Gross, Markus and Wan, Hui and Rasch, Philip J and Caldwell, Peter M and Williamson, David L and Klocke, Daniel and Jablonowski, Christiane and Thatcher, Diana R and Wood, Nigel and Cullen, Mike and Beare, Bob and Willett, Martin and Lemarié, Florian and Blayo, Eric and Malardel, Sylvie and Termonia, Piet and Gassmann, Almut and Lauritzen, Peter H and Johansen, Hans and Zarzycki, Colin M and Sakaguchi, Koichi and Leung, Ruby},
  issn         = {0027-0644},
  journal      = {MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW},
  keywords     = {Coupled models,Model comparison,Model errors,Model evaluation,performance,Numerical analysis,modeling,Parameterization,COMMUNITY ATMOSPHERE MODEL,GENERAL-CIRCULATION MODELS,VARIABLE-RESOLUTION CESM,ORDER TURBULENCE CLOSURE,PLANETARY BOUNDARY-LAYER,PDF-BASED MODEL,PART I,SPECTRAL ELEMENT,GLOBAL-MODEL,OCEAN MODEL},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {3505--3544},
  title        = {Physics-dynamics coupling in weather, climate and earth system models : challenges and recent progress},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/mwr-d-17-0345.1},
  volume       = {146},
  year         = {2018},
}

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