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Electronic Laboratory Medicine ordering with evidence-based order sets in primary care (ELMO study) : protocol for a cluster randomised trial

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Abstract
Background: Laboratory testing is an important clinical act with a valuable role in screening, diagnosis, management and monitoring of diseases or therapies. However, inappropriate laboratory test ordering is frequent, burdening health care spending and negatively influencing quality of care. Inappropriate tests may also result in false-positive results and potentially cause excessive downstream activities. Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) have shown promising results to influence the test-ordering behaviour of physicians and to improve appropriateness. Order sets, a formof CDSS where a limited set of evidence-based tests are proposed for a series of indications, integrated in a computerised physician order entry (CPOE) have been shown to be effective in reducing the volume of ordered laboratory tests but convincing evidence that they influence appropriateness is lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of order sets on the quality and quantity of laboratory test orders by physicians. We also aim to evaluate the effect of order sets on diagnostic error and explore the effect on downstream or cascade activities. Methods: We will conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial in Belgian primary care practices. The study is powered to measure two outcomes. We will primarily measure the influence of our CDSS on the appropriateness of laboratory test ordering. Additionally, we will also measure the influence on diagnostic error. We will also explore the effects of our intervention on cascade activities due to altered results of inappropriate tests. Discussion: We have designed a study that should be able to demonstrate whether the CDSS aimed at diagnostic testing is not only able to influence appropriateness but also safe with respect to diagnostic error. These findings will influence a lager, nationwide implementation of this CDSS.
Keywords
DECISION-SUPPORT-SYSTEMS, DIAGNOSTIC ERROR, TESTS, VARIABILITY, PREVALENCE, PHYSICIANS, PATTERNS, ENTRY

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Chicago
Delvaux, Nicolas, An De Sutter, Stijn Van de Velde, Dirk Ramaekers, Steffen Fieuws, and Bert Aertgeerts. 2017. “Electronic Laboratory Medicine Ordering with Evidence-based Order Sets in Primary Care (ELMO Study) : Protocol for a Cluster Randomised Trial.” Implementation Science 12.
APA
Delvaux, N., De Sutter, A., Van de Velde, S., Ramaekers, D., Fieuws, S., & Aertgeerts, B. (2017). Electronic Laboratory Medicine ordering with evidence-based order sets in primary care (ELMO study) : protocol for a cluster randomised trial. IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE, 12.
Vancouver
1.
Delvaux N, De Sutter A, Van de Velde S, Ramaekers D, Fieuws S, Aertgeerts B. Electronic Laboratory Medicine ordering with evidence-based order sets in primary care (ELMO study) : protocol for a cluster randomised trial. IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE. 2017;12.
MLA
Delvaux, Nicolas, An De Sutter, Stijn Van de Velde, et al. “Electronic Laboratory Medicine Ordering with Evidence-based Order Sets in Primary Care (ELMO Study) : Protocol for a Cluster Randomised Trial.” IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE 12 (2017): n. pag. Print.
@article{8570839,
  abstract     = {Background: Laboratory testing is an important clinical act with a valuable role in screening, diagnosis, management and monitoring of diseases or therapies. However, inappropriate laboratory test ordering is frequent, burdening health care spending and negatively influencing quality of care. Inappropriate tests may also result in false-positive results and potentially cause excessive downstream activities. Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) have shown promising results to influence the test-ordering behaviour of physicians and to improve appropriateness. Order sets, a formof CDSS where a limited set of evidence-based tests are proposed for a series of indications, integrated in a computerised physician order entry (CPOE) have been shown to be effective in reducing the volume of ordered laboratory tests but convincing evidence that they influence appropriateness is lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of order sets on the quality and quantity of laboratory test orders by physicians. We also aim to evaluate the effect of order sets on diagnostic error and explore the effect on downstream or cascade activities. 
Methods: We will conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial in Belgian primary care practices. The study is powered to measure two outcomes. We will primarily measure the influence of our CDSS on the appropriateness of laboratory test ordering. Additionally, we will also measure the influence on diagnostic error. We will also explore the effects of our intervention on cascade activities due to altered results of inappropriate tests. 
Discussion: We have designed a study that should be able to demonstrate whether the CDSS aimed at diagnostic testing is not only able to influence appropriateness but also safe with respect to diagnostic error. These findings will influence a lager, nationwide implementation of this CDSS.},
  articleno    = {147},
  author       = {Delvaux, Nicolas and De Sutter, An and Van de Velde, Stijn and Ramaekers, Dirk and Fieuws, Steffen and Aertgeerts, Bert},
  issn         = {1748-5908},
  journal      = {IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE},
  keyword      = {DECISION-SUPPORT-SYSTEMS,DIAGNOSTIC ERROR,TESTS,VARIABILITY,PREVALENCE,PHYSICIANS,PATTERNS,ENTRY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {8},
  title        = {Electronic Laboratory Medicine ordering with evidence-based order sets in primary care (ELMO study) : protocol for a cluster randomised trial},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13012-017-0685-6},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2017},
}

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