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A single oxidosqualene cyclase produces the seco-triterpenoid α-onocerin

(2018) PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 176(2). p.1469-1484
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Abstract
8,14-seco-Triterpenoids are characterized by their unusual open C-ring. Their distribution in nature is rare and scattered in taxonomically unrelated plants. The 8,14-seco-triterpenoid alpha-onocerin is only known from the evolutionarily distant clubmoss genus Lycopodium and the leguminous genus Ononis, which makes the biosynthesis of this seco-triterpenoid intriguing from an evolutionary standpoint. In our experiments with Ononis spinosa, alpha-onocerin was detected only in the roots. Through transcriptome analysis of the roots, an oxidosqualene cyclase, OsONS1, was identified that produces alpha-onocerin from squalene-2,3; 22,23-dioxide when transiently expressed in Nicotiana bethamiana. In contrast, in Lycopodium clavatum, two sequential cyclases, LcLCC and LcLCD, are required to produce alpha-onocerin in the N. benthamiana transient expression system. Expression of OsONS1 in the lanosterol synthase knockout yeast strain GIL77, which accumulates squalene-2,3; 22,23-dioxide, verified the alpha-onocerin production. A phylogenetic analysis predicts that OsONS1 branches off from specific lupeol synthases and does not group with the known L. clavatum alpha-onocerin cyclases. Both the biochemical and phylogenetic analyses of OsONS1 suggest convergent evolution of the alpha-onocerin pathways. When OsONS1 was coexpressed in N. benthamiana leaves with either of the two O. spinosa squalene epoxidases, OsSQE1 or OsSQE2, alpha-onocerin production was boosted, most likely because the epoxidases produce higher amounts of squalene-2,3; 22,23-dioxide. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy analysis demonstrated specific protein-protein interactions between OsONS1 and both O. spinosa squalene epoxidases. Coexpression of OsONS1 with the two OsSQEs suggests that OsSQE2 is the preferred partner of OsONS1 in planta. Our results provide an example of the convergent evolution of plant specialized metabolism.
Keywords
PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS, SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE, LANOSTEROL, CYCLASE, SQUALENE EPOXIDASE, STEROL BIOSYNTHESIS, LYCOPODIUM-CLAVATUM, YEAST, ONONIS, 2_3-OXIDOSQUALENE, CONVERSION

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Chicago
Almeida, Aldo, Lemeng Dong, Bekzod Khakimov, Jean-Etienne Bassard, Tessa Moses, Frederic Lota, Alain Goossens, Giovanni Appendino, and Soren Bak. 2018. “A Single Oxidosqualene Cyclase Produces the Seco-triterpenoid Α-onocerin.” Plant Physiology 176 (2): 1469–1484.
APA
Almeida, Aldo, Dong, L., Khakimov, B., Bassard, J.-E., Moses, T., Lota, F., Goossens, A., et al. (2018). A single oxidosqualene cyclase produces the seco-triterpenoid α-onocerin. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 176(2), 1469–1484.
Vancouver
1.
Almeida A, Dong L, Khakimov B, Bassard J-E, Moses T, Lota F, et al. A single oxidosqualene cyclase produces the seco-triterpenoid α-onocerin. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 2018;176(2):1469–84.
MLA
Almeida, Aldo, Lemeng Dong, Bekzod Khakimov, et al. “A Single Oxidosqualene Cyclase Produces the Seco-triterpenoid Α-onocerin.” PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 176.2 (2018): 1469–1484. Print.
@article{8570725,
  abstract     = {8,14-seco-Triterpenoids are characterized by their unusual open C-ring. Their distribution in nature is rare and scattered in taxonomically unrelated plants. The 8,14-seco-triterpenoid alpha-onocerin is only known from the evolutionarily distant clubmoss genus Lycopodium and the leguminous genus Ononis, which makes the biosynthesis of this seco-triterpenoid intriguing from an evolutionary standpoint. In our experiments with Ononis spinosa, alpha-onocerin was detected only in the roots. Through transcriptome analysis of the roots, an oxidosqualene cyclase, OsONS1, was identified that produces alpha-onocerin from squalene-2,3; 22,23-dioxide when transiently expressed in Nicotiana bethamiana. In contrast, in Lycopodium clavatum, two sequential cyclases, LcLCC and LcLCD, are required to produce alpha-onocerin in the N. benthamiana transient expression system. Expression of OsONS1 in the lanosterol synthase knockout yeast strain GIL77, which accumulates squalene-2,3; 22,23-dioxide, verified the alpha-onocerin production. A phylogenetic analysis predicts that OsONS1 branches off from specific lupeol synthases and does not group with the known L. clavatum alpha-onocerin cyclases. Both the biochemical and phylogenetic analyses of OsONS1 suggest convergent evolution of the alpha-onocerin pathways. When OsONS1 was coexpressed in N. benthamiana leaves with either of the two O. spinosa squalene epoxidases, OsSQE1 or OsSQE2, alpha-onocerin production was boosted, most likely because the epoxidases produce higher amounts of squalene-2,3; 22,23-dioxide. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy analysis demonstrated specific protein-protein interactions between OsONS1 and both O. spinosa squalene epoxidases. Coexpression of OsONS1 with the two OsSQEs suggests that OsSQE2 is the preferred partner of OsONS1 in planta. Our results provide an example of the convergent evolution of plant specialized metabolism.},
  author       = {Almeida, Aldo and Dong, Lemeng and Khakimov, Bekzod and Bassard, Jean-Etienne and Moses, Tessa and Lota, Frederic and Goossens, Alain and Appendino, Giovanni and Bak, Soren},
  issn         = {0032-0889},
  journal      = {PLANT PHYSIOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {1469--1484},
  title        = {A single oxidosqualene cyclase produces the seco-triterpenoid \ensuremath{\alpha}-onocerin},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.17.01369},
  volume       = {176},
  year         = {2018},
}

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