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Effect of laser therapy on expression of angio- and fibrogenic factors, and cytokine concentrations during the healing process of human pressure ulcers

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Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the effect of laser irradiation at different wavelengths on the expression of selected growth factors and inflammatory mediators at particular stages of the wound healing process. Methods: Sixty-seven patients were recruited, treated, and analyzed (group A - 940 nm: 17 patients; group B - 808 nm: 18 patients; group C - 658 nm: 16 patients; group D - sham therapy: 17 patients). Patients received a basic treatment, including repositioning and mobilization, air pressure mattress and bed support surfaces, wound cleansing and drug therapy. Additionally, patients received laser therapy once a day, 5 times a week for 1 month in use of a semiconductor lasers (GaAIAs) which emitted a continuous radiation emission at separate wavelengths of 940 nm (group A), 808 nm (group B) and 658 nm (group C). In group D (sham therapy), laser therapy was applied in the same manner, but the device was off during each session (only the applicator was switched on to scan pressure ulcers using none coherent red visible light). Results: The positive changes in the measured serum (IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-alpha) and wound tissue (TNF-alpha, VEGF and TGF beta 1) parameters appeared to be connected only with the wavelength of 658 nm. The significant change in pro-inflammatory mediator levels [interleukin 2 (IL-2) with p=0.008 and interleukin 6 (IL-6) with p=0.016] was noticed after two weeks of laser therapy. In the other groups, the inflammation was also reduced, but the process was not as marked as in group C. Similarly, in the case of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) concentration, where after two weeks of treatment with irradiation at a wavelength of 658 nm, a rapid suppression was observed (p=0.001), whereas in the other groups, these results were much slower and not as obvious. Interestingly, again in the case of group C, the change in TNF-alpha concentration in wound tissue was most intensive (approximate to 75% reduction), whereas the changes in other groups were not as obvious (approximate to 50% reduction). After irradiation (658 nm), the VEGF expression increased significantly within the first two weeks, and then it decreased and maintained a stable level. In contrast, the TGF beta 1 activity remained level, but always higher in comparison to other groups Conclusions: The effective healing of pressure ulcers is connected with laser irradiation at a wavelength of 658 nm. We believe that this effect is related to the inhibition of inflammatory processes in the wound and stimulation of angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation at this specific radiation (based both on concentration of interleukins and TNF-alpha serum level and VEGF, TGF beta 1, TNF-alpha activities in wound biopsies). Laser therapy at wavelengths of 940 and 808 nm does not significantly affect the above-mentioned repair processes, which explains its low effectiveness in the treatment of pressure ulcers.
Keywords
pressure ulcers, laser therapy, growth factors, interleukins, MONOPHASIC PULSED CURRENT, CLINICAL-TRIAL

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Chicago
Jakub , Taradaj, Barbara Shay, Robert Dymarek, Mirosław Sopel, Karolina Walewicz, Dimitri Beeckman, Lisette Schoonhoven, Amit Gefen, and Joanna Rosińczuk. 2018. “Effect of Laser Therapy on Expression of Angio- and Fibrogenic Factors, and Cytokine Concentrations During the Healing Process of Human Pressure Ulcers.” International Journal of Medical Sciences 15 (11): 1105–1112.
APA
Jakub , T., Shay, B., Dymarek, R., Sopel, M., Walewicz, K., Beeckman, D., Schoonhoven, L., et al. (2018). Effect of laser therapy on expression of angio- and fibrogenic factors, and cytokine concentrations during the healing process of human pressure ulcers. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, 15(11), 1105–1112.
Vancouver
1.
Jakub T, Shay B, Dymarek R, Sopel M, Walewicz K, Beeckman D, et al. Effect of laser therapy on expression of angio- and fibrogenic factors, and cytokine concentrations during the healing process of human pressure ulcers. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES. 2018;15(11):1105–12.
MLA
Jakub , Taradaj, Barbara Shay, Robert Dymarek, et al. “Effect of Laser Therapy on Expression of Angio- and Fibrogenic Factors, and Cytokine Concentrations During the Healing Process of Human Pressure Ulcers.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES 15.11 (2018): 1105–1112. Print.
@article{8570705,
  abstract     = {Objective: To evaluate the effect of laser irradiation at different wavelengths on the expression of selected growth factors and inflammatory mediators at particular stages of the wound healing process. 
Methods: Sixty-seven patients were recruited, treated, and analyzed (group A - 940 nm: 17 patients; group B - 808 nm: 18 patients; group C - 658 nm: 16 patients; group D - sham therapy: 17 patients). Patients received a basic treatment, including repositioning and mobilization, air pressure mattress and bed support surfaces, wound cleansing and drug therapy. Additionally, patients received laser therapy once a day, 5 times a week for 1 month in use of a semiconductor lasers (GaAIAs) which emitted a continuous radiation emission at separate wavelengths of 940 nm (group A), 808 nm (group B) and 658 nm (group C). In group D (sham therapy), laser therapy was applied in the same manner, but the device was off during each session (only the applicator was switched on to scan pressure ulcers using none coherent red visible light). 
Results: The positive changes in the measured serum (IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-alpha) and wound tissue (TNF-alpha, VEGF and TGF beta 1) parameters appeared to be connected only with the wavelength of 658 nm. The significant change in pro-inflammatory mediator levels [interleukin 2 (IL-2) with p=0.008 and interleukin 6 (IL-6) with p=0.016] was noticed after two weeks of laser therapy. In the other groups, the inflammation was also reduced, but the process was not as marked as in group C. Similarly, in the case of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) concentration, where after two weeks of treatment with irradiation at a wavelength of 658 nm, a rapid suppression was observed (p=0.001), whereas in the other groups, these results were much slower and not as obvious. Interestingly, again in the case of group C, the change in TNF-alpha concentration in wound tissue was most intensive (approximate to 75\% reduction), whereas the changes in other groups were not as obvious (approximate to 50\% reduction). After irradiation (658 nm), the VEGF expression increased significantly within the first two weeks, and then it decreased and maintained a stable level. In contrast, the TGF beta 1 activity remained level, but always higher in comparison to other groups 
Conclusions: The effective healing of pressure ulcers is connected with laser irradiation at a wavelength of 658 nm. We believe that this effect is related to the inhibition of inflammatory processes in the wound and stimulation of angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation at this specific radiation (based both on concentration of interleukins and TNF-alpha serum level and VEGF, TGF beta 1, TNF-alpha activities in wound biopsies). Laser therapy at wavelengths of 940 and 808 nm does not significantly affect the above-mentioned repair processes, which explains its low effectiveness in the treatment of pressure ulcers.},
  author       = {Jakub , Taradaj and Shay, Barbara and Dymarek, Robert and Sopel, Miros\unmatched{0142}aw and Walewicz, Karolina and Beeckman, Dimitri and  Schoonhoven, Lisette and Gefen, Amit and Rosi\'{n}czuk, Joanna},
  issn         = {1449-1907},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES},
  keyword      = {pressure ulcers,laser therapy,growth factors,interleukins,MONOPHASIC PULSED CURRENT,CLINICAL-TRIAL},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1105--1112},
  title        = {Effect of laser therapy on expression of angio- and fibrogenic factors, and cytokine concentrations during the healing process of human pressure ulcers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.25651},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2018},
}

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