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KH176 under development for rare mitochondrial disease : a first in man randomized controlled clinical trial in healthy male volunteers

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Abstract
Background: Mitochondrial disorders are a clinically, biochemically and genetically heterogeneous group of mult-isystem diseases, with an unmet medical need for treatment. KH176 is an orally bio-available small molecule under development for the treatment of mitochondrial(-related) diseases. The compound is a member of a new class of drugs, acting as a potent intracellular redox-modulating agent essential for the control of oxidative and redox pathologies. The aim of this randomized, placebo controlled, double-blinded phase 1 study was to test safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of KH176 in healthy male volunteers. Putative effects on redox related biomarkers were explored. Results: KH176 was well tolerated up to and including a single dose of 800 mg and multiple doses of 400 mg b.i.d. for 7 Days. However, when the QT interval was corrected for heart rate, administration of single doses of 800 and 2000 mg and at a multiple dose of 400 mg KH176 had marked effects. Post-hoc analysis of the ECGs showed clear changes in cardiac electrophysiology at single doses of 800 and 2000 mg and multiple doses of 400 mg b.i.d.. At lower doses, detailed ECG analysis showed no changes in electrophysiology compared to placebo. Exposure-response modelling of the cardiac intervals revealed an exposure range of KH176 without effects on cardiac conduction and provided a threshold of 1000 ng/mL above which changes in intervals could occur. After single-and multiple-dose administration, the pharmacokinetics of KH176 was more than dose proportional. KH176 accumulated to a small extent and food only slightly affected the pharmacokinetics of KH176, which was considered clinically irrelevant. Renal excretion of unchanged KH176 and its metabolite represents a minor pathway in the elimination of KH176. As expected in healthy volunteers no effects on redox biomarkers were observed. Conclusion: The study deemed that KH176 is well tolerated up to single doses of 800 mg and multiple doses of 400 mg b.i.d. and has a pharmacokinetic profile supportive for a twice daily dosing. Only at high doses, KH176 causes clinically relevant changes in cardiac electrophysiology, including prolonged QTc interval and changes in T wave morphology. A Phase 2 clinical trial (100 mg b.i.d., orally) has been conducted recently of which the final results are expected Q1 2018.
Keywords
GLUTATHIONE DEFICIENCY, DISORDERS, INTERVAL, NUCLEAR, Randomized controlled trial, Mitochondrial medicine, Clinical trial, phase 1, Mitochondrial disorder, Orphan drugs, Rare disease, KH176, Redox, Pharmacokinetics, Safety

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Chicago
Koene, Saskia, Edwin Spaans, Lucas Van Bortel, Griet Van Lancker, Brant Delafontaine, Fabio Badilini, Julien Beyrath, and Jan Smeitink. 2017. “KH176 Under Development for Rare Mitochondrial Disease : a First in Man Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial in Healthy Male Volunteers.” Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 12.
APA
Koene, S., Spaans, E., Van Bortel, L., Van Lancker, G., Delafontaine, B., Badilini, F., Beyrath, J., et al. (2017). KH176 under development for rare mitochondrial disease : a first in man randomized controlled clinical trial in healthy male volunteers. ORPHANET JOURNAL OF RARE DISEASES, 12.
Vancouver
1.
Koene S, Spaans E, Van Bortel L, Van Lancker G, Delafontaine B, Badilini F, et al. KH176 under development for rare mitochondrial disease : a first in man randomized controlled clinical trial in healthy male volunteers. ORPHANET JOURNAL OF RARE DISEASES. 2017;12.
MLA
Koene, Saskia, Edwin Spaans, Lucas Van Bortel, et al. “KH176 Under Development for Rare Mitochondrial Disease : a First in Man Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial in Healthy Male Volunteers.” ORPHANET JOURNAL OF RARE DISEASES 12 (2017): n. pag. Print.
@article{8570103,
  abstract     = {Background: Mitochondrial disorders are a clinically, biochemically and genetically heterogeneous group of mult-isystem diseases, with an unmet medical need for treatment. KH176 is an orally bio-available small molecule under development for the treatment of mitochondrial(-related) diseases. The compound is a member of a new class of drugs, acting as a potent intracellular redox-modulating agent essential for the control of oxidative and redox pathologies. The aim of this randomized, placebo controlled, double-blinded phase 1 study was to test safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of KH176 in healthy male volunteers. Putative effects on redox related biomarkers were explored. 
Results: KH176 was well tolerated up to and including a single dose of 800 mg and multiple doses of 400 mg b.i.d. for 7 Days. However, when the QT interval was corrected for heart rate, administration of single doses of 800 and 2000 mg and at a multiple dose of 400 mg KH176 had marked effects. Post-hoc analysis of the ECGs showed clear changes in cardiac electrophysiology at single doses of 800 and 2000 mg and multiple doses of 400 mg b.i.d.. At lower doses, detailed ECG analysis showed no changes in electrophysiology compared to placebo. Exposure-response modelling of the cardiac intervals revealed an exposure range of KH176 without effects on cardiac conduction and provided a threshold of 1000 ng/mL above which changes in intervals could occur. After single-and multiple-dose administration, the pharmacokinetics of KH176 was more than dose proportional. KH176 accumulated to a small extent and food only slightly affected the pharmacokinetics of KH176, which was considered clinically irrelevant. Renal excretion of unchanged KH176 and its metabolite represents a minor pathway in the elimination of KH176. As expected in healthy volunteers no effects on redox biomarkers were observed. 
Conclusion: The study deemed that KH176 is well tolerated up to single doses of 800 mg and multiple doses of 400 mg b.i.d. and has a pharmacokinetic profile supportive for a twice daily dosing. Only at high doses, KH176 causes clinically relevant changes in cardiac electrophysiology, including prolonged QTc interval and changes in T wave morphology. A Phase 2 clinical trial (100 mg b.i.d., orally) has been conducted recently of which the final results are expected Q1 2018.},
  articleno    = {163},
  author       = {Koene, Saskia and Spaans, Edwin and Van Bortel, Lucas and Van Lancker, Griet and Delafontaine, Brant and Badilini, Fabio and Beyrath, Julien and Smeitink, Jan},
  issn         = {1750-1172},
  journal      = {ORPHANET JOURNAL OF RARE DISEASES},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {12},
  title        = {KH176 under development for rare mitochondrial disease : a first in man randomized controlled clinical trial in healthy male volunteers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-017-0715-0},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2017},
}

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