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Concrete matter: building the Bruges submarine pens (1917-18)

Willem Bekers (UGent) and Ronald De Meyer (UGent)
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Abstract
Starting in August 1917, a large submarine shelter was erected in the German-occupied port of Bruges. Its construction completed a transition from mixed steel-and-timber shelters to all-concrete bunkers in this area. The new _Gruppenunterstände_ prefigured many of the typological, technological and logistic key features of the iconic submarine pens from World War II, when lessons learnt from the Bruges prototype were to be pushed to extremes. The case of the Bruges submarine pens exemplifies the scientifically managed construction site and hints at the underexposure of experimental military concrete technology in architectural construction history. It is argued that the conflict period, rather than forming a gap in an otherwise continuous evolution of building practice, created certain opportunities for a modern and experimental attitude towards building typology and construction.

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Chicago
Bekers, Willem, and Ronald De Meyer. 2018. “Concrete Matter: Building the Bruges Submarine Pens (1917-18).” In Building Knowledge, Constructing Histories, ed. Ine Wouters, Stephanie Van de Voorde, Inge Bertels, Bernard Espion, Krista De Jonge, and Denis Zastavni, 1:131–140. Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema.
APA
Bekers, W., & De Meyer, R. (2018). Concrete matter: building the Bruges submarine pens (1917-18). In I. Wouters, S. Van de Voorde, I. Bertels, B. Espion, K. De Jonge, & D. Zastavni (Eds.), Building knowledge, constructing histories (Vol. 1, pp. 131–140). Presented at the Sixth International Congress on Construction History, Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema.
Vancouver
1.
Bekers W, De Meyer R. Concrete matter: building the Bruges submarine pens (1917-18). In: Wouters I, Van de Voorde S, Bertels I, Espion B, De Jonge K, Zastavni D, editors. Building knowledge, constructing histories. Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema; 2018. p. 131–40.
MLA
Bekers, Willem, and Ronald De Meyer. “Concrete Matter: Building the Bruges Submarine Pens (1917-18).” Building Knowledge, Constructing Histories. Ed. Ine Wouters et al. Vol. 1. Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema, 2018. 131–140. Print.
@inproceedings{8569887,
  abstract     = {Starting in August 1917, a large submarine shelter was erected in the German-occupied port of Bruges. Its construction completed a transition from mixed steel-and-timber shelters to all-concrete bunkers in this area. The new _Gruppenunterstände_ prefigured many of the typological, technological and logistic key features of the iconic submarine pens from World War II, when lessons learnt from the Bruges prototype were to be pushed to extremes. The case of the Bruges submarine pens exemplifies the scientifically managed construction site and hints at the underexposure of experimental military concrete technology in architectural construction history. It is argued that the conflict period, rather than forming a gap in an otherwise continuous evolution of building practice, created certain opportunities for a modern and experimental attitude towards building typology and construction.},
  author       = {Bekers, Willem and De Meyer, Ronald},
  booktitle    = {Building knowledge, constructing histories},
  editor       = {Wouters, Ine and Van de Voorde, Stephanie and Bertels, Inge and Espion, Bernard and De Jonge, Krista and Zastavni, Denis},
  isbn         = {9781138332300},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Brussels},
  pages        = {131--140},
  publisher    = {CRC Press/Balkema},
  title        = {Concrete matter: building the Bruges submarine pens (1917-18)},
  volume       = {1},
  year         = {2018},
}