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Analysis of protein glycation in human fingernail clippings with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as an alternative technique for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus

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Abstract
BACKGROUND: Glycated keratin allows the monitoring of average tissue glucose exposure over previous weeks. In the present study, we wanted to explore if near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy could be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for assessing glycation in diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 52 patients with diabetes mellitus and 107 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. A limited number (n=21) of nails of healthy subjects were glycated in vitro with 0.278 mol/L, 0.556 mol/L and 0.833 mol/L glucose solution to study the effect of glucose on the nail spectrum. Consequently, the nail clippings of the patients were analyzed using a Thermo Fisher Antaris II Near-IR Analyzer Spectrometer and near infrared (NIR) chemical imaging. Spectral classification (patients with diabetes mellitus vs. healthy subjects) was performed using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). RESULTS: In vitro glycation resulted in peak sharpening between 4300 and 4400 cm-1 and spectral variations at 5270 cm-1 and between 6600 and 7500 cm-1. Similar regions encountered spectral deviations during analysis of the patients' nails. Optimization of the spectral collection parameters was necessary in order to distinguish a large dataset. Spectra had to be collected at 16 cm-1, 128 scans, region 4000-7500 cm-1. Using standard normal variate, Savitsky-Golay smoothing (7 points) and first derivative preprocessing allowed for the prediction of the test set with 100% correct assignments utilizing a PLS-DA model. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of protein glycation in human fingernail clippings with NIR spectroscopy could be an alternative affordable technique for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
Keywords
glycation, infrared spectroscopy, keratin, nails, partial least square discriminant analysis, SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA, SPECTRA, MARKER, NAIL

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Chicago
Monteyne, Tinne, Renaat Coopman, Antoine S Kishabongo, Jonas Himpe, Bruno Lapauw, Samiah Shadid, Elisabeth H Van Aken, et al. 2018. “Analysis of Protein Glycation in Human Fingernail Clippings with Near-infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy as an Alternative Technique for the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus.” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 56 (9): 1551–1558.
APA
Monteyne, Tinne, Coopman, R., Kishabongo, A. S., Himpe, J., Lapauw, B., Shadid, S., Van Aken, E. H., et al. (2018). Analysis of protein glycation in human fingernail clippings with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as an alternative technique for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND LABORATORY MEDICINE, 56(9), 1551–1558.
Vancouver
1.
Monteyne T, Coopman R, Kishabongo AS, Himpe J, Lapauw B, Shadid S, et al. Analysis of protein glycation in human fingernail clippings with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as an alternative technique for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND LABORATORY MEDICINE. 2018;56(9):1551–8.
MLA
Monteyne, Tinne, Renaat Coopman, Antoine S Kishabongo, et al. “Analysis of Protein Glycation in Human Fingernail Clippings with Near-infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy as an Alternative Technique for the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus.” CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND LABORATORY MEDICINE 56.9 (2018): 1551–1558. Print.
@article{8569521,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND: Glycated keratin allows the monitoring of average tissue glucose exposure over previous weeks. In the present study, we wanted to explore if near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy could be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for assessing glycation in diabetes mellitus.
METHODS: A total of 52 patients with diabetes mellitus and 107 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. A limited number (n=21) of nails of healthy subjects were glycated in vitro with 0.278 mol/L, 0.556 mol/L and 0.833 mol/L glucose solution to study the effect of glucose on the nail spectrum. Consequently, the nail clippings of the patients were analyzed using a Thermo Fisher Antaris II Near-IR Analyzer Spectrometer and near infrared (NIR) chemical imaging. Spectral classification (patients with diabetes mellitus vs. healthy subjects) was performed using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA).
RESULTS: In vitro glycation resulted in peak sharpening between 4300 and 4400 cm-1 and spectral variations at 5270 cm-1 and between 6600 and 7500 cm-1. Similar regions encountered spectral deviations during analysis of the patients' nails. Optimization of the spectral collection parameters was necessary in order to distinguish a large dataset. Spectra had to be collected at 16 cm-1, 128 scans, region 4000-7500 cm-1. Using standard normal variate, Savitsky-Golay smoothing (7 points) and first derivative preprocessing allowed for the prediction of the test set with 100\% correct assignments utilizing a PLS-DA model.
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of protein glycation in human fingernail clippings with NIR spectroscopy could be an alternative affordable technique for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.},
  author       = {Monteyne, Tinne and Coopman, Renaat and Kishabongo, Antoine S and Himpe, Jonas and Lapauw, Bruno and Shadid, Samiah and Van Aken, Elisabeth H and Berenson, Darja and Speeckaert, Marijn and De Beer, Thomas and Delanghe, Joris},
  issn         = {1434-6621},
  journal      = {CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND LABORATORY MEDICINE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {1551--1558},
  title        = {Analysis of protein glycation in human fingernail clippings with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as an alternative technique for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2018-0239},
  volume       = {56},
  year         = {2018},
}

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