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Sulfurization of co-evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells : the role of Na

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Abstract
The sulfurization of co-evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films is studied. In this work, a relationship between the Na concentration and the further S incorporation in the CZTSe absorber layer is found. Na is added by a NaF precursor layer before CZTSe co-evaporation and/or by diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrate. Higher Na concentrations result in bigger grain sizes, higher S/(S + Se) atomic ratios and photovoltaic devices with higher V-OC, as investigated by SEM, GIXRD, Raman and I-V measurements. Results using an alternative substrate as ceramic verify the importance of the control of the Na content, which alters the carrier concentrations and elements distribution with much higher S and Na concentrations at the surface in this particular case. By using this methodology, it is possible to tune the kesterite band gap energy by the creation of S-gradient through the absorber thin film. This may provide a new approach for the control of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)(4) growth and development of high efficiency kesterite solar cells. Efficiencies of 5.5% and 6.4% are obtained using ceramic and SLG substrates respectively (without antireflection coatings and without grids).
Keywords
Kesterite, Solar cells, Co-evaporation, Sulfurization, Na, SODIUM, IMPACT, CU(IN, GA)SE-2, TEMPERATURE, ABSORBERS

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Chicago
de la Cueva, L, Y Sánchez, L Calvo-Barrio, F Oliva, V Izquierdo-Roca, Samira Khelifi, T Bertram, JM Merino, M León, and R Caballero. 2018. “Sulfurization of Co-evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 Thin Film Solar Cells : the Role of Na.” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 186: 115–123.
APA
de la Cueva, L., Sánchez, Y., Calvo-Barrio, L., Oliva, F., Izquierdo-Roca, V., Khelifi, S., Bertram, T., et al. (2018). Sulfurization of co-evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells : the role of Na. SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, 186, 115–123.
Vancouver
1.
de la Cueva L, Sánchez Y, Calvo-Barrio L, Oliva F, Izquierdo-Roca V, Khelifi S, et al. Sulfurization of co-evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells : the role of Na. SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS. 2018;186:115–23.
MLA
de la Cueva, L, Y Sánchez, L Calvo-Barrio, et al. “Sulfurization of Co-evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 Thin Film Solar Cells : the Role of Na.” SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS 186 (2018): 115–123. Print.
@article{8568961,
  abstract     = {The sulfurization of co-evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films is studied. In this work, a relationship between the Na concentration and the further S incorporation in the CZTSe absorber layer is found. Na is added by a NaF precursor layer before CZTSe co-evaporation and/or by diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrate. Higher Na concentrations result in bigger grain sizes, higher S/(S + Se) atomic ratios and photovoltaic devices with higher V-OC, as investigated by SEM, GIXRD, Raman and I-V measurements. Results using an alternative substrate as ceramic verify the importance of the control of the Na content, which alters the carrier concentrations and elements distribution with much higher S and Na concentrations at the surface in this particular case. By using this methodology, it is possible to tune the kesterite band gap energy by the creation of S-gradient through the absorber thin film. This may provide a new approach for the control of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)(4) growth and development of high efficiency kesterite solar cells. Efficiencies of 5.5\% and 6.4\% are obtained using ceramic and SLG substrates respectively (without antireflection coatings and without grids).},
  author       = {de la Cueva, L and S{\'a}nchez, Y and Calvo-Barrio, L and Oliva, F and Izquierdo-Roca, V and Khelifi, Samira and Bertram, T and Merino, JM and Le{\'o}n, M and Caballero, R},
  issn         = {0927-0248},
  journal      = {SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS},
  keyword      = {Kesterite,Solar cells,Co-evaporation,Sulfurization,Na,SODIUM,IMPACT,CU(IN,GA)SE-2,TEMPERATURE,ABSORBERS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {115--123},
  title        = {Sulfurization of co-evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells : the role of Na},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2018.06.015},
  volume       = {186},
  year         = {2018},
}

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