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Multiple mycotoxin exposure of infants and young children via breastfeeding and complementary/weaning foods consumption in Ecuadorian highlands

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Abstract
The dietary exposure to mycotoxins in Ecuadorian children aged 0-23 months (320 rural and 603 urban) was evaluated based on the intake of breast milk and staple cereals used as complementary/weaning foods. A probabilistic distribution approach by first order Monte Carlo simulation was adopted to assess the locally occurring mycotoxins (aflatoxins M-1 and B-1 in breast milk, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in wheat noodles and oat flakes, and HT-2 toxin in polished rice). Overall, exposure was modest but higher for rural children due to their monotonous diet. Aflatoxin exposure by breast milk intake were of health concern in both areas (Margin of Exposure and Combined Margin of Exposure Index < 10,000). Mycotoxin exposure by staple cereals intake was considered tolerable across feeding stages for individual mycotoxin-cereal combination (Hazard Quotient < 1) and combined exposure (Hazard Index < 1). The major exposure was to HT-2 toxin by rice intake at complementary feeding (15% rural and 4% urban above TDI) and at weaning stage (26% rural and 6% urban above TDI). Since the usual Ecuadorian diet is based on the same staple cereals, risk management actions could lead to a better protection of young children and also ensure higher safety of the recommended breastfeeding practices by protecting nursing mothers.
Keywords
Exposure assessment, Mycotoxins, Breast milk, Staple cereals, Ecuadorian children, AFLATOXIN M-1, RISK-ASSESSMENT, HUMAN HEALTH, HUMAN-MILK, CHEMICALS, SAFETY, DEOXYNIVALENOL, OCHRATOXIN, MOTHERS, QUALITY

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Chicago
Ortiz, Johana, Liesbeth Jacxsens, Gabroema Astudillo, Adriana Ballesteros, Silvana Donoso, Lieven Huybregts, and Bruno De Meulenaer. 2018. “Multiple Mycotoxin Exposure of Infants and Young Children via Breastfeeding and Complementary/weaning Foods Consumption in Ecuadorian Highlands.” Food and Chemical Toxicology 118: 541–548.
APA
Ortiz, J., Jacxsens, L., Astudillo, G., Ballesteros, A., Donoso, S., Huybregts, L., & De Meulenaer, B. (2018). Multiple mycotoxin exposure of infants and young children via breastfeeding and complementary/weaning foods consumption in Ecuadorian highlands. FOOD AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY, 118, 541–548.
Vancouver
1.
Ortiz J, Jacxsens L, Astudillo G, Ballesteros A, Donoso S, Huybregts L, et al. Multiple mycotoxin exposure of infants and young children via breastfeeding and complementary/weaning foods consumption in Ecuadorian highlands. FOOD AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY. 2018;118:541–8.
MLA
Ortiz, Johana, Liesbeth Jacxsens, Gabroema Astudillo, et al. “Multiple Mycotoxin Exposure of Infants and Young Children via Breastfeeding and Complementary/weaning Foods Consumption in Ecuadorian Highlands.” FOOD AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY 118 (2018): 541–548. Print.
@article{8568326,
  abstract     = {The dietary exposure to mycotoxins in Ecuadorian children aged 0-23 months (320 rural and 603 urban) was evaluated based on the intake of breast milk and staple cereals used as complementary/weaning foods. A probabilistic distribution approach by first order Monte Carlo simulation was adopted to assess the locally occurring mycotoxins (aflatoxins M-1 and B-1 in breast milk, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in wheat noodles and oat flakes, and HT-2 toxin in polished rice). Overall, exposure was modest but higher for rural children due to their monotonous diet. Aflatoxin exposure by breast milk intake were of health concern in both areas (Margin of Exposure and Combined Margin of Exposure Index {\textlangle} 10,000). Mycotoxin exposure by staple cereals intake was considered tolerable across feeding stages for individual mycotoxin-cereal combination (Hazard Quotient {\textlangle} 1) and combined exposure (Hazard Index {\textlangle} 1). The major exposure was to HT-2 toxin by rice intake at complementary feeding (15\% rural and 4\% urban above TDI) and at weaning stage (26\% rural and 6\% urban above TDI). Since the usual Ecuadorian diet is based on the same staple cereals, risk management actions could lead to a better protection of young children and also ensure higher safety of the recommended breastfeeding practices by protecting nursing mothers.},
  author       = {Ortiz, Johana and Jacxsens, Liesbeth and Astudillo, Gabroema and Ballesteros, Adriana and Donoso, Silvana and Huybregts, Lieven and De Meulenaer, Bruno},
  issn         = {0278-6915},
  journal      = {FOOD AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {541--548},
  title        = {Multiple mycotoxin exposure of infants and young children via breastfeeding and complementary/weaning foods consumption in Ecuadorian highlands},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.06.008},
  volume       = {118},
  year         = {2018},
}

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