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Dense cores in galaxies out to z=2.5 in SDSS, UltraVISTA, and the five 3D-HST/CANDELS fields

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Abstract
The dense interiors of massive galaxies are among themost intriguing environments in the universe. In this paper, we ask when these dense cores were formed and determine how galaxies gradually assembled around them. We select galaxies that have a stellarmass> 3x1010M inside r = 1 kpc out to z = 2.5, using the 3D- HST survey and data at low redshift. Remarkably, the number density of galaxies with dense cores appears to have decreased from z = 2.5 to the present. This decrease is probably mostly due to stellar mass loss and the resulting adiabatic expansion, with some contribution from merging. We infer that dense cores were mostly formed at z > 2.5, consistent with their largely quiescent stellar populations. While the cores appear to form early, the galaxies in which they reside show strong evolution: their total masses increase by a factor of 2- 3 from z = 2.5 to z = 0 and their effective radii increase by a factor of 5- 6. As a result, the contribution of dense cores to the total mass of the galaxies in which they reside decreases from 50% at z = 2.5 to 15% at z = 0. Because of their early formation, the contribution of dense cores to the total stellar mass budget of the universe is a strong function of redshift. The stars in cores with M1 kpc > 3 x 10(10)M make up 0.1% of the stellar mass density of the universe today but 10%- 20% at z 2, depending on their initial mass function. The formation of these cores required the conversion of 10(11)M of gas into stars within 1 kpc, while preventing significant star formation at larger radii.
Keywords
SIMILAR-TO 2, INITIAL MASS FUNCTION, INSIDE-OUT GROWTH, SUPERMASSIVE, BLACK-HOLES, HUBBLE-SPACE-TELESCOPE, EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY, COMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXIES, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES, ELLIPTIC GALAXIES, STELLAR MASS, cosmology: observations, galaxies: evolution, Galaxy: formation, Galaxy:, structure

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MLA
van Dokkum, Pieter G et al. “Dense Cores in Galaxies Out to Z=2.5 in SDSS, UltraVISTA, and the Five 3D-HST/CANDELS Fields.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 791.1 (2014): n. pag. Print.
APA
van Dokkum, P. G., Bezanson, R., van der Wel, A., Nelson, E. J., Momcheva, I., Skelton, R. E., Whitaker, K. E., et al. (2014). Dense cores in galaxies out to z=2.5 in SDSS, UltraVISTA, and the five 3D-HST/CANDELS fields. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 791(1).
Chicago author-date
van Dokkum, Pieter G, Rachel Bezanson, Arjen van der Wel, Erica June Nelson, Ivelina Momcheva, Rosalind E Skelton, Katherine E Whitaker, et al. 2014. “Dense Cores in Galaxies Out to Z=2.5 in SDSS, UltraVISTA, and the Five 3D-HST/CANDELS Fields.” Astrophysical Journal 791 (1).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
van Dokkum, Pieter G, Rachel Bezanson, Arjen van der Wel, Erica June Nelson, Ivelina Momcheva, Rosalind E Skelton, Katherine E Whitaker, Gabriel Brammer, Charlie Conroy, Natascha M Foerster Schreiber, Mattia Fumagalli, Mariska Kriek, Ivo Labbe, Joel Leja, Danilo Marchesini, Adam Muzzin, Pascal Oesch, and Stijn Wuyts. 2014. “Dense Cores in Galaxies Out to Z=2.5 in SDSS, UltraVISTA, and the Five 3D-HST/CANDELS Fields.” Astrophysical Journal 791 (1).
Vancouver
1.
van Dokkum PG, Bezanson R, van der Wel A, Nelson EJ, Momcheva I, Skelton RE, et al. Dense cores in galaxies out to z=2.5 in SDSS, UltraVISTA, and the five 3D-HST/CANDELS fields. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2014;791(1).
IEEE
[1]
P. G. van Dokkum et al., “Dense cores in galaxies out to z=2.5 in SDSS, UltraVISTA, and the five 3D-HST/CANDELS fields,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 791, no. 1, 2014.
@article{8568266,
  abstract     = {The dense interiors of massive galaxies are among themost intriguing environments in the universe. In this paper, we ask when these dense cores were formed and determine how galaxies gradually assembled around them. We select galaxies that have a stellarmass> 3x1010M inside r = 1 kpc out to z = 2.5, using the 3D- HST survey and data at low redshift. Remarkably, the number density of galaxies with dense cores appears to have decreased from z = 2.5 to the present. This decrease is probably mostly due to stellar mass loss and the resulting adiabatic expansion, with some contribution from merging. We infer that dense cores were mostly formed at z > 2.5, consistent with their largely quiescent stellar populations. While the cores appear to form early, the galaxies in which they reside show strong evolution: their total masses increase by a factor of 2- 3 from z = 2.5 to z = 0 and their effective radii increase by a factor of 5- 6. As a result, the contribution of dense cores to the total mass of the galaxies in which they reside decreases from 50% at z = 2.5 to 15% at z = 0. Because of their early formation, the contribution of dense cores to the total stellar mass budget of the universe is a strong function of redshift. The stars in cores with M1 kpc > 3 x 10(10)M make up 0.1% of the stellar mass density of the universe today but 10%- 20% at z 2, depending on their initial mass function. The formation of these cores required the conversion of 10(11)M of gas into stars within 1 kpc, while preventing significant star formation at larger radii.},
  articleno    = {45},
  author       = {van Dokkum, Pieter G and Bezanson, Rachel and van der Wel, Arjen and Nelson, Erica June and Momcheva, Ivelina and Skelton, Rosalind E and Whitaker, Katherine E and Brammer, Gabriel and Conroy, Charlie and Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M and Fumagalli, Mattia and Kriek, Mariska and Labbe, Ivo and Leja, Joel and Marchesini, Danilo and Muzzin, Adam and Oesch, Pascal and Wuyts, Stijn},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {SIMILAR-TO 2,INITIAL MASS FUNCTION,INSIDE-OUT GROWTH,SUPERMASSIVE,BLACK-HOLES,HUBBLE-SPACE-TELESCOPE,EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY,COMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXIES,STAR-FORMING GALAXIES,ELLIPTIC GALAXIES,STELLAR MASS,cosmology: observations,galaxies: evolution,Galaxy: formation,Galaxy:,structure},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {18},
  title        = {Dense cores in galaxies out to z=2.5 in SDSS, UltraVISTA, and the five 3D-HST/CANDELS fields},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/791/1/45},
  volume       = {791},
  year         = {2014},
}

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