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Geometry of star-forming galaxies from SDSS, 3D-HST, and CANDELS

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Abstract
We determine the intrinsic, three-dimensional shape distribution of star-forming galaxies at 0 < z < 2.5, as inferred from their observed projected axis ratios. In the present-day universe, star-forming galaxies of all masses 10(9)-10(11) M-circle dot are predominantly thin, nearly oblate disks, in line with previous studies. We now extend this to higher redshifts, and find that among massive galaxies (M-* > 10(10) M-circle dot) disks are the most common geometric shape at all z less than or similar to 2. Lower-mass galaxies at z > 1 possess a broad range of geometric shapes: the fraction of elongated (prolate) galaxies increases toward higher redshifts and lower masses. Galaxies with stellar mass 10(9) M-circle dot (10(10) M-circle dot) are a mix of roughly equal numbers of elongated and disk galaxies at z similar to 1 (z similar to 2). This suggests that galaxies in this mass range do not yet have disks that are sustained over many orbital periods, implying that galaxies with present-day stellar mass comparable to that of the Milky Way typically first formed such sustained stellar disks at redshift z similar to 1.5-2. Combined with constraints on the evolution of the star formation rate density and the distribution of star formation over galaxies with different masses, our findings imply that, averaged over cosmic time, the majority of stars formed in disks.
Keywords
INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY, EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY, TADPOLE, ADVANCED CAMERA, HUBBLE-SPACE-TELESCOPE, DIGITAL SKY SURVEY, SIMILAR-TO 2.5, HIGH-REDSHIFT, SPIRAL GALAXIES, CHAIN GALAXIES, DISK GALAXY, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: fundamental parameters, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: structure

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MLA
van der Wel, Arjen et al. “Geometry of Star-forming Galaxies from SDSS, 3D-HST, and CANDELS.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS 792.1 (2014): n. pag. Print.
APA
van der Wel, A., Chang, Y.-Y., Bell, E., Holden, B., Ferguson, H., Giavalisco, M., Rix, H.-W., et al. (2014). Geometry of star-forming galaxies from SDSS, 3D-HST, and CANDELS. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS, 792(1).
Chicago author-date
van der Wel, Arjen, Yu-Yen Chang, EF Bell, BP Holden, HC Ferguson, M Giavalisco, H-W Rix, et al. 2014. “Geometry of Star-forming Galaxies from SDSS, 3D-HST, and CANDELS.” Astrophysical Journal Letters 792 (1).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
van der Wel, Arjen, Yu-Yen Chang, EF Bell, BP Holden, HC Ferguson, M Giavalisco, H-W Rix, R Skelton, K Whitaker, I Momcheva, G Brammer, SA Kassin, M Martig, A Dekel, D Ceverino, DC Koo, M Mozena, PG van Dokkum, M Franx, SM Faber, and J Primack. 2014. “Geometry of Star-forming Galaxies from SDSS, 3D-HST, and CANDELS.” Astrophysical Journal Letters 792 (1).
Vancouver
1.
van der Wel A, Chang Y-Y, Bell E, Holden B, Ferguson H, Giavalisco M, et al. Geometry of star-forming galaxies from SDSS, 3D-HST, and CANDELS. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS. 2014;792(1).
IEEE
[1]
A. van der Wel et al., “Geometry of star-forming galaxies from SDSS, 3D-HST, and CANDELS,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS, vol. 792, no. 1, 2014.
@article{8568246,
  abstract     = {We determine the intrinsic, three-dimensional shape distribution of star-forming galaxies at 0 < z < 2.5, as inferred from their observed projected axis ratios. In the present-day universe, star-forming galaxies of all masses 10(9)-10(11) M-circle dot are predominantly thin, nearly oblate disks, in line with previous studies. We now extend this to higher redshifts, and find that among massive galaxies (M-* > 10(10) M-circle dot) disks are the most common geometric shape at all z less than or similar to 2. Lower-mass galaxies at z > 1 possess a broad range of geometric shapes: the fraction of elongated (prolate) galaxies increases toward higher redshifts and lower masses. Galaxies with stellar mass 10(9) M-circle dot (10(10) M-circle dot) are a mix of roughly equal numbers of elongated and disk galaxies at z similar to 1 (z similar to 2). This suggests that galaxies in this mass range do not yet have disks that are sustained over many orbital periods, implying that galaxies with present-day stellar mass comparable to that of the Milky Way typically first formed such sustained stellar disks at redshift z similar to 1.5-2. Combined with constraints on the evolution of the star formation rate density and the distribution of star formation over galaxies with different masses, our findings imply that, averaged over cosmic time, the majority of stars formed in disks.},
  articleno    = {L6},
  author       = {van der Wel, Arjen and Chang, Yu-Yen and Bell, EF and Holden, BP and Ferguson, HC and Giavalisco, M and Rix, H-W and Skelton, R and Whitaker, K and Momcheva, I and Brammer, G and Kassin, SA and Martig, M and Dekel, A and Ceverino, D and Koo, DC and Mozena, M and van Dokkum, PG and Franx, M and Faber, SM and Primack, J},
  issn         = {2041-8205},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS},
  keywords     = {INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY,EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY,TADPOLE,ADVANCED CAMERA,HUBBLE-SPACE-TELESCOPE,DIGITAL SKY SURVEY,SIMILAR-TO 2.5,HIGH-REDSHIFT,SPIRAL GALAXIES,CHAIN GALAXIES,DISK GALAXY,galaxies: evolution,galaxies: fundamental parameters,galaxies: high-redshift,galaxies: structure},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {6},
  title        = {Geometry of star-forming galaxies from SDSS, 3D-HST, and CANDELS},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/792/1/L6},
  volume       = {792},
  year         = {2014},
}

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