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A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang

(2014) NATURE. 513(7518). p.394-+
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Abstract
Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores in early cosmic epochs(1-3). Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions(4) or small apparent sizes(5-7), but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we report a candidate core in the process of formation 11 billion years ago, at redshift z = 2.3. This galaxy, GOODS-N-774, has a stellar mass of 100 billion solar masses, a half-light radius of 1.0 kiloparsecs and a star formation rate of 90(-20)(+45) solar masses per year. The star-forming gas has a velocity dispersion of 317 +/- 30 kilometres per second. This is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, which are compact quiescent galaxies at z approximate to 2 (refs 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 seem to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of this galaxy weinfer that many star-forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.
Keywords
HUBBLE-SPACE-TELESCOPE, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES, EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY, SURVEY, COMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXIES, HIGH-REDSHIFT, SUBMILLIMETER, GALAXIES, VELOCITY DISPERSIONS, METALLICITY RELATION, LARGE-SAMPLE, RED, NUGGETS

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MLA
Nelson, Erica, et al. “A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years after the Big Bang.” NATURE, vol. 513, no. 7518, Nature Publishing Group, 2014, pp. 394-+.
APA
Nelson, E., van Dokkum, P., Franx, M., Brammer, G., Momcheva, I., Schreiber, N. F., … Wuyts, S. (2014). A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang. NATURE, 513(7518), 394-+.
Chicago author-date
Nelson, Erica, Pieter van Dokkum, Marijn Franx, Gabriel Brammer, Ivelina Momcheva, Natascha Foerster Schreiber, Elisabete da Cunha, et al. 2014. “A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years after the Big Bang.” NATURE 513 (7518): 394-+.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Nelson, Erica, Pieter van Dokkum, Marijn Franx, Gabriel Brammer, Ivelina Momcheva, Natascha Foerster Schreiber, Elisabete da Cunha, Linda Tacconi, Rachel Bezanson, Allison Kirkpatrick, Joel Leja, Hans-Walter Rix, Rosalind Skelton, Arjen van der Wel, Katherine Whitaker, and Stijn Wuyts. 2014. “A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years after the Big Bang.” NATURE 513 (7518): 394-+.
Vancouver
1.
Nelson E, van Dokkum P, Franx M, Brammer G, Momcheva I, Schreiber NF, et al. A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang. NATURE. 2014;513(7518):394-+.
IEEE
[1]
E. Nelson et al., “A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang,” NATURE, vol. 513, no. 7518, pp. 394-+, 2014.
@article{8568234,
  abstract     = {Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores in early cosmic epochs(1-3). Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions(4) or small apparent sizes(5-7), but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we report a candidate core in the process of formation 11 billion years ago, at redshift z = 2.3. This galaxy, GOODS-N-774, has a stellar mass of 100 billion solar masses, a half-light radius of 1.0 kiloparsecs and a star formation rate of 90(-20)(+45) solar masses per year. The star-forming gas has a velocity dispersion of 317 +/- 30 kilometres per second. This is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, which are compact quiescent galaxies at z approximate to 2 (refs 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 seem to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of this galaxy weinfer that many star-forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.},
  author       = {Nelson, Erica and van Dokkum, Pieter and Franx, Marijn and Brammer, Gabriel and Momcheva, Ivelina and Schreiber, Natascha Foerster and da Cunha, Elisabete and Tacconi, Linda and Bezanson, Rachel and Kirkpatrick, Allison and Leja, Joel and Rix, Hans-Walter and Skelton, Rosalind and van der Wel, Arjen and Whitaker, Katherine and Wuyts, Stijn},
  issn         = {0028-0836},
  journal      = {NATURE},
  keywords     = {HUBBLE-SPACE-TELESCOPE,STAR-FORMING GALAXIES,EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY,SURVEY,COMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXIES,HIGH-REDSHIFT,SUBMILLIMETER,GALAXIES,VELOCITY DISPERSIONS,METALLICITY RELATION,LARGE-SAMPLE,RED,NUGGETS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7518},
  pages        = {394--+},
  publisher    = {Nature Publishing Group},
  title        = {A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13616},
  volume       = {513},
  year         = {2014},
}

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