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Abstract
In this paper we study a key phase in the formation of massive galaxies: the transition of star-forming galaxies into massive (M-stars similar to 10(11)M(circle dot)), compact (r(e) similar to 1 kpc) quiescent galaxies, which takes place from z similar to 3 to z similar to 1.5. We use HST grism redshifts and extensive photometry in all five 3D-HST/CANDELS fields, more than doubling the area used previously for such studies, and combine these data with Keck MOSFIRE and NIRSPEC spectroscopy. We first confirm that a population of massive, compact, star-forming galaxies exists at z greater than or similar to 2, using K-band spectroscopy of 25 of these objects at 2.0 < z < 2.5. They have a median [N II]/H alpha ratio of 0.6, are highly obscured with SFR(tot)/SFR(H alpha) similar to 10, and have a large range of observed line widths. We infer from the kinematics and spatial distribution of H alpha that the galaxies have rotating disks of ionized gas that are a factor of similar to 2 more extended than the stellar distribution. By combining measurements of individual galaxies, we find that the kinematics are consistent with a nearly Keplerian fall-off from V-rot similar to 500 km s(-1) at 1 kpc to V-rot similar to 250 km s(-1) at 7 kpc, and that the total mass out to this radius is dominated by the dense stellar component. Next, we study the size and mass evolution of the progenitors of compact massive galaxies. Even though individual galaxies may have had complex histories with periods of compaction and mergers, we show that the population of progenitors likely followed a simple inside-out growth track in the size-mass plane of Delta log r(e) similar to 0.3 Delta log M-stars. This mode of growth gradually increases the stellar mass within a fixed physical radius, and galaxies quench when they reach a stellar density or velocity dispersion threshold. As shown in other studies, the mode of growth changes after quenching, as dry mergers take the galaxies on a relatively steep track in the size-mass plane.
Keywords
SIMILAR-TO 2, INSIDE-OUT GROWTH, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI, SINS/ZC-SINF, SURVEY, SPECTRAL ENERGY-DISTRIBUTIONS, INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY, EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY, LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES, MOLECULAR GAS, FRACTIONS, HUBBLE-SPACE-TELESCOPE, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: structure

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MLA
van Dokkum, Pieter G et al. “Forming Compact Massive Galaxies.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 813.1 (2015): n. pag. Print.
APA
van Dokkum, P. G., Nelson, E. J., Franx, M., Oesch, P., Momcheva, I., Brammer, G., Foerster Schreiber, N. M., et al. (2015). Forming compact massive galaxies. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 813(1).
Chicago author-date
van Dokkum, Pieter G, Erica June Nelson, Marijn Franx, Pascal Oesch, Ivelina Momcheva, Gabriel Brammer, Natascha M Foerster Schreiber, et al. 2015. “Forming Compact Massive Galaxies.” Astrophysical Journal 813 (1).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
van Dokkum, Pieter G, Erica June Nelson, Marijn Franx, Pascal Oesch, Ivelina Momcheva, Gabriel Brammer, Natascha M Foerster Schreiber, Rosalind E Skelton, Katherine E Whitaker, Arjen van der Wel, Rachel Bezanson, Mattia Fumagalli, Garth D Illingworth, Mariska Kriek, Joel Leja, and Stijn Wuyts. 2015. “Forming Compact Massive Galaxies.” Astrophysical Journal 813 (1).
Vancouver
1.
van Dokkum PG, Nelson EJ, Franx M, Oesch P, Momcheva I, Brammer G, et al. Forming compact massive galaxies. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2015;813(1).
IEEE
[1]
P. G. van Dokkum et al., “Forming compact massive galaxies,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 813, no. 1, 2015.
@article{8567799,
  abstract     = {In this paper we study a key phase in the formation of massive galaxies: the transition of star-forming galaxies into massive (M-stars similar to 10(11)M(circle dot)), compact (r(e) similar to 1 kpc) quiescent galaxies, which takes place from z similar to 3 to z similar to 1.5. We use HST grism redshifts and extensive photometry in all five 3D-HST/CANDELS fields, more than doubling the area used previously for such studies, and combine these data with Keck MOSFIRE and NIRSPEC spectroscopy. We first confirm that a population of massive, compact, star-forming galaxies exists at z greater than or similar to 2, using K-band spectroscopy of 25 of these objects at 2.0 < z < 2.5. They have a median [N II]/H alpha ratio of 0.6, are highly obscured with SFR(tot)/SFR(H alpha) similar to 10, and have a large range of observed line widths. We infer from the kinematics and spatial distribution of H alpha that the galaxies have rotating disks of ionized gas that are a factor of similar to 2 more extended than the stellar distribution. By combining measurements of individual galaxies, we find that the kinematics are consistent with a nearly Keplerian fall-off from V-rot similar to 500 km s(-1) at 1 kpc to V-rot similar to 250 km s(-1) at 7 kpc, and that the total mass out to this radius is dominated by the dense stellar component. Next, we study the size and mass evolution of the progenitors of compact massive galaxies. Even though individual galaxies may have had complex histories with periods of compaction and mergers, we show that the population of progenitors likely followed a simple inside-out growth track in the size-mass plane of Delta log r(e) similar to 0.3 Delta log M-stars. This mode of growth gradually increases the stellar mass within a fixed physical radius, and galaxies quench when they reach a stellar density or velocity dispersion threshold. As shown in other studies, the mode of growth changes after quenching, as dry mergers take the galaxies on a relatively steep track in the size-mass plane.},
  articleno    = {23},
  author       = {van Dokkum, Pieter G and Nelson, Erica June and Franx, Marijn and Oesch, Pascal and Momcheva, Ivelina and Brammer, Gabriel and Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M and Skelton, Rosalind E and Whitaker, Katherine E and van der Wel, Arjen and Bezanson, Rachel and Fumagalli, Mattia and Illingworth, Garth D and Kriek, Mariska and Leja, Joel and Wuyts, Stijn},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {SIMILAR-TO 2,INSIDE-OUT GROWTH,ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI,SINS/ZC-SINF,SURVEY,SPECTRAL ENERGY-DISTRIBUTIONS,INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY,EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY,LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES,MOLECULAR GAS,FRACTIONS,HUBBLE-SPACE-TELESCOPE,galaxies: evolution,galaxies: structure},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {37},
  title        = {Forming compact massive galaxies},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/813/1/23},
  volume       = {813},
  year         = {2015},
}

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