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Dietary exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of sugar cane juice in Egypt: The forgotten beverage

Author
Organization
Abstract
Introduction Sugarcane juice is a traditional drink consumed on a daily basis in several countries including Brazil, Egypt, India and Pakistan. Detection of mycotoxigenic fungi in sugarcane fields has been documented, however, very little is known about mycotoxin contamination in the grass and other sugarcane-based products, especially sugarcane juice. The current study investigated the co-contamination of several mycotoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, DAS, DON, FB1, FB2, FB3, OTA, STERIG, T-2, and ZEN) and their mycobiota in sugarcane juice. Contamination results have been used to estimate the dietary exposure of the Egyptian population to mycotoxins through juice consumption. Materials and methods Samples (n=89) were randomly collected from local vendors and juice shops during two seasons (summer 2016 and winter 2017) from Assiut City, Upper Egypt. Extraction and quantification of mycotoxins were performed by liquid-liquid extraction followed by a validated UPLC-MS/MS analytical method. Identification of the mycotoxigenic fungi and other microorganisms was performed using PCR after culturing on Czapek Yeast Extract and Potato Dextrose Agar. Risk assessment of mycotoxins using probabilistic and deterministic approaches at various scenarios for adult male and female Egyptian juice consumers was performed. Results The analysis exhibited contamination of sugarcane juice samples with AFB1 and FB1 mycotoxins in 63% (n=56) of the samples. Juice collected during winter had a contamination range of 0.1-3 µg.L−1 for AFB1 and 4-58 µg. L−1 for FB1, while samples from the summer season had a contamination range of 0.3-1.3 µg.L−1 for AFB1 only. Furthermore, the risk assessment using probabilistic and deterministic approaches for adult male and female Egyptian juice consumers pinpointed a remarkable difference in levels of exposure to mycotoxins between the two seasons and between males & females. Conclusions The exposure levels of AFB1 and FB1 in comparison with their tolerable daily intake indicate a possible implication for juice consumers in Upper Egypt in both seasons, especially in summer due to the higher juice consumption. The results advocate a further and more in-depth investigation on the incidence of mycotoxins, either in their current structure or in a modified form, in the sugarcane or in industrial sugarcane-derived products (e.g. raw sugar and molasses). Keywords Sugarcane juice, mycotoxins, risk assessment, traditional beverage
Keywords
Mycotoxins, Risk Assessment, Sugarcane Juice, Traditional beverage, LC-MS/MS

Citation

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Chicago
Fathi Abdallah Abdelmohsen, Mohamed, Leonie Lust, Geert Haesaert, Kris Audenaert, Sarah De Saeger, and Marthe De Boevre. 2018. “Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins Through the Consumption of Sugar Cane Juice in Egypt: The Forgotten Beverage.” In 2nd African Symposium on Mycotoxicology (ASM). Mombasa, Kenya: African Symposium on Mycotoxicology.
APA
Fathi Abdallah Abdelmohsen, M., Lust, L., Haesaert, G., Audenaert, K., De Saeger, S., & De Boevre, M. (2018). Dietary exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of sugar cane juice in Egypt: The forgotten beverage. 2nd African Symposium on Mycotoxicology (ASM). Presented at the 2nd African Symposium on Mycotoxicology (ASM), Mombasa, Kenya: African Symposium on Mycotoxicology.
Vancouver
1.
Fathi Abdallah Abdelmohsen M, Lust L, Haesaert G, Audenaert K, De Saeger S, De Boevre M. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of sugar cane juice in Egypt: The forgotten beverage. 2nd African Symposium on Mycotoxicology (ASM). Mombasa, Kenya: African Symposium on Mycotoxicology; 2018.
MLA
Fathi Abdallah Abdelmohsen, Mohamed, Leonie Lust, Geert Haesaert, et al. “Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins Through the Consumption of Sugar Cane Juice in Egypt: The Forgotten Beverage.” 2nd African Symposium on Mycotoxicology (ASM). Mombasa, Kenya: African Symposium on Mycotoxicology, 2018. Print.
@inproceedings{8567784,
  abstract     = {Introduction
Sugarcane juice is a traditional drink consumed on a daily basis in several countries including Brazil, Egypt, India and Pakistan. Detection of mycotoxigenic fungi in sugarcane fields has been documented, however, very little is known about mycotoxin contamination in the grass and other sugarcane-based products, especially sugarcane juice. The current study investigated the co-contamination of several mycotoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, DAS, DON, FB1, FB2, FB3, OTA, STERIG, T-2, and ZEN) and their mycobiota in sugarcane juice. Contamination results have been used to estimate the dietary exposure of the Egyptian population to mycotoxins through juice consumption.

Materials and methods
Samples (n=89) were randomly collected from local vendors and juice shops during two seasons (summer 2016 and winter 2017) from Assiut City, Upper Egypt. Extraction and quantification of mycotoxins were performed by liquid-liquid extraction followed by a validated UPLC-MS/MS analytical method. Identification of the mycotoxigenic fungi and other microorganisms was performed using PCR after culturing on Czapek Yeast Extract and Potato Dextrose Agar. Risk assessment of mycotoxins using probabilistic and deterministic approaches at various scenarios for adult male and female Egyptian juice consumers was performed.

Results 
The analysis exhibited contamination of sugarcane juice samples with AFB1 and FB1 mycotoxins in 63\% (n=56) of the samples. Juice collected during winter had a contamination range of 0.1-3 {\textmu}g.L\ensuremath{-}1 for AFB1 and 4-58 {\textmu}g. L\ensuremath{-}1 for FB1, while samples from the summer season had a contamination range of 0.3-1.3 {\textmu}g.L\ensuremath{-}1 for AFB1 only. Furthermore, the risk assessment using probabilistic and deterministic approaches for adult male and female Egyptian juice consumers pinpointed a remarkable difference in levels of exposure to mycotoxins between the two seasons and between males \& females.

Conclusions
The exposure levels of AFB1 and FB1 in comparison with their tolerable daily intake indicate a possible implication for juice consumers in Upper Egypt in both seasons, especially in summer due to the higher juice consumption. The results advocate a further and more in-depth  investigation on the incidence of mycotoxins, either in their current structure or in a modified form, in the sugarcane or in industrial sugarcane-derived products (e.g. raw sugar and molasses).

Keywords
Sugarcane juice, mycotoxins, risk assessment, traditional beverage},
  author       = {Fathi Abdallah Abdelmohsen, Mohamed and Lust, Leonie and Haesaert, Geert and Audenaert, Kris and De Saeger, Sarah and De Boevre, Marthe},
  booktitle    = {2nd African Symposium on Mycotoxicology (ASM)},
  keyword      = {Mycotoxins,Risk Assessment,Sugarcane Juice,Traditional beverage,LC-MS/MS},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Mombasa, Kenya},
  publisher    = {African Symposium on Mycotoxicology},
  title        = {Dietary exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of sugar cane juice in Egypt: The forgotten beverage},
  url          = {https://africansocietyofmycotoxicology.org/},
  year         = {2018},
}