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CANDELS : elevated black hole growth in the progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2

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Abstract
We examine the fraction of massive (M-* > 10(10)M(circle dot)) compact star-forming galaxies (cSFGs) that host an active galactic nucleus (AGN) at z similar to 2. These cSFGs are likely the direct progenitors of the compact quiescent galaxies observed at this epoch, which are the first population of passive galaxies to appear in large numbers in the early Universe. We identify cSFGs that host an AGN using a combination of Hubble WFC3 imaging and Chandra X-ray observations in four fields: the Chandra Deep Fields, the Extended Groth Strip, and the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey field. We find that 39.2(-3.6)(+3.9)% (65/166) of cSFGs at 1.4 < z < 3.0 host an X-ray detected AGN. This fraction is 3.2 times higher than the incidence of AGN in extended star-forming galaxies with similar masses at these redshifts. This difference is significant at the 6.2 sigma level. Our results are consistent with models in which cSFGs are formed through a dissipative contraction that triggers a compact starburst and concurrent growth of the central black hole. We also discuss our findings in the context of cosmological galaxy evolution simulations that require feedback energy to rapidly quench cSFGs. We show that the AGN fraction peaks precisely where energy injection is needed to reproduce the decline in the number density of cSFGs with redshift. Our results suggest that the first abundant population of massive quenched galaxies emerged directly following a phase of elevated supermassive black hole growth and further hints at a possible connection between AGN and the rapid quenching of star formation in these galaxies.
Keywords
STAR-FORMING GALAXIES, HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI, PHASE-3 BILLION YEARS, EXTENDED GROTH STRIP, STELLAR-MASS, ELLIPTIC, GALAXIES, DEEP SURVEY, INSIDE-OUT, SOURCE IDENTIFICATION, galaxies: active, galaxies: evolution, X-rays: galaxies

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MLA
Kocevski, Dale D, Guillermo Barro, SM Faber, et al. “CANDELS : Elevated Black Hole Growth in the Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies at z ∼ 2.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 846.2 (2017): n. pag. Print.
APA
Kocevski, D. D., Barro, G., Faber, S., Dekel, A., Somerville, R. S., Young, J. A., Williams, C. C., et al. (2017). CANDELS : elevated black hole growth in the progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 846(2).
Chicago author-date
Kocevski, Dale D, Guillermo Barro, SM Faber, Avishai Dekel, Rachel S Somerville, Joshua A Young, Christina C Williams, et al. 2017. “CANDELS : Elevated Black Hole Growth in the Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies at z ∼ 2.” Astrophysical Journal 846 (2).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Kocevski, Dale D, Guillermo Barro, SM Faber, Avishai Dekel, Rachel S Somerville, Joshua A Young, Christina C Williams, Daniel H McIntosh, Antonis Georgakakis, Guenther Hasinger, Kirpal Nandra, Francesca Civano, David M Alexander, Omar Almaini, Christopher J Conselice, Jennifer L Donley, Harry C Ferguson, Mauro Giavalisco, Norman A Grogin, Nimish Hathi, Matthew Hawkins, Anton M Koekemoer, David C Koo, Elizabeth J McGrath, Bahram Mobasher, Pablo G Perez Gonzalez, Janine Pforr, Joel R Primack, Paola Santini, Mauro Stefanon, Jonathan R Trump, Arjen van der Wel, Stijn Wuyts, and Haojing Yan. 2017. “CANDELS : Elevated Black Hole Growth in the Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies at z ∼ 2.” Astrophysical Journal 846 (2).
Vancouver
1.
Kocevski DD, Barro G, Faber S, Dekel A, Somerville RS, Young JA, et al. CANDELS : elevated black hole growth in the progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2017;846(2).
IEEE
[1]
D. D. Kocevski et al., “CANDELS : elevated black hole growth in the progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 846, no. 2, 2017.
@article{8567758,
  abstract     = {We examine the fraction of massive (M-* > 10(10)M(circle dot)) compact star-forming galaxies (cSFGs) that host an active galactic nucleus (AGN) at z similar to 2. These cSFGs are likely the direct progenitors of the compact quiescent galaxies observed at this epoch, which are the first population of passive galaxies to appear in large numbers in the early Universe. We identify cSFGs that host an AGN using a combination of Hubble WFC3 imaging and Chandra X-ray observations in four fields: the Chandra Deep Fields, the Extended Groth Strip, and the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey field. We find that 39.2(-3.6)(+3.9)% (65/166) of cSFGs at 1.4 < z < 3.0 host an X-ray detected AGN. This fraction is 3.2 times higher than the incidence of AGN in extended star-forming galaxies with similar masses at these redshifts. This difference is significant at the 6.2 sigma level. Our results are consistent with models in which cSFGs are formed through a dissipative contraction that triggers a compact starburst and concurrent growth of the central black hole. We also discuss our findings in the context of cosmological galaxy evolution simulations that require feedback energy to rapidly quench cSFGs. We show that the AGN fraction peaks precisely where energy injection is needed to reproduce the decline in the number density of cSFGs with redshift. Our results suggest that the first abundant population of massive quenched galaxies emerged directly following a phase of elevated supermassive black hole growth and further hints at a possible connection between AGN and the rapid quenching of star formation in these galaxies.},
  articleno    = {112},
  author       = {Kocevski, Dale D and Barro, Guillermo and Faber, SM and Dekel, Avishai and Somerville, Rachel S and Young, Joshua A and Williams, Christina C and McIntosh, Daniel H and Georgakakis, Antonis and Hasinger, Guenther and Nandra, Kirpal and Civano, Francesca and Alexander, David M and Almaini, Omar and Conselice, Christopher J and Donley, Jennifer L and Ferguson, Harry C and Giavalisco, Mauro and Grogin, Norman A and Hathi, Nimish and Hawkins, Matthew and Koekemoer, Anton M and Koo, David C and McGrath, Elizabeth J and Mobasher, Bahram and Perez Gonzalez, Pablo G and Pforr, Janine and Primack, Joel R and Santini, Paola and Stefanon, Mauro and Trump, Jonathan R and van der Wel, Arjen and Wuyts, Stijn and Yan, Haojing},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {STAR-FORMING GALAXIES,HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES,ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI,PHASE-3 BILLION YEARS,EXTENDED GROTH STRIP,STELLAR-MASS,ELLIPTIC,GALAXIES,DEEP SURVEY,INSIDE-OUT,SOURCE IDENTIFICATION,galaxies: active,galaxies: evolution,X-rays: galaxies},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {13},
  title        = {CANDELS : elevated black hole growth in the progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8566},
  volume       = {846},
  year         = {2017},
}

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