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The nature of massive transition galaxies in CANDELS, GAMA and cosmological simulations

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Abstract
We explore observational and theoretical constraints on how galaxies might transition between the 'star-forming main sequence' (SFMS) and varying 'degrees of quiescence' out to z = 3. Our analysis is focused on galaxies with stellar mass M* > 1010 M⊙, and is enabled by GAMA and CANDELS observations, a semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation, and a cosmological hydrodynamical 'zoom in' simulation with momentum-driven AGN feedback. In both the observations and the SAM, transition galaxies tend to have intermediate Sérsic indices, half-light radii, and surface stellar mass densities compared to star-forming and quiescent galaxies out to z = 3. We place an observational upper limit on the average population transition time-scale as a function of redshift, finding that the average high-redshift galaxy is on a 'fast track' for quenching whereas the average low-redshift galaxy is on a 'slow track' for quenching. We qualitatively identify four physical origin scenarios for transition galaxies in the SAM: oscillations on the SFMS, slow quenching, fast quenching, and rejuvenation. Quenching time-scales in both the SAM and the hydrodynamical simulation are not fast enough to reproduce the quiescent population that we observe at z ∼ 3. In the SAM, we do not find a clear-cut morphological dependence of quenching time-scales, but we do predict that the mean stellar ages, cold gas fractions, SMBH (supermassive black hole) masses and halo masses of transition galaxies tend to be intermediate relative to those of star-forming and quiescent galaxies at z < 3.
Keywords
galaxies: bulges, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: formation, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: star formation, galaxies: structure, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI, DIGITAL SKY SURVEY, STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS, POST-STARBURST GALAXIES, COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAM, SIMILAR-TO 1, LESS-THAN 3, CATALOGS SOURCE IDENTIFICATION, MODELS CONFRONT OBSERVATIONS

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MLA
Pandya, Viraj et al. “The Nature of Massive Transition Galaxies in CANDELS, GAMA and Cosmological Simulations.” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 472.2 (2017): 2054–2084. Print.
APA
Pandya, V., Brennan, R., Somerville, R. S., Choi, E., Barro, G., Wuyts, S., Taylor, E. N., et al. (2017). The nature of massive transition galaxies in CANDELS, GAMA and cosmological simulations. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 472(2), 2054–2084.
Chicago author-date
Pandya, Viraj, Ryan Brennan, Rachel S Somerville, Ena Choi, Guillermo Barro, Stijn Wuyts, Edward N Taylor, et al. 2017. “The Nature of Massive Transition Galaxies in CANDELS, GAMA and Cosmological Simulations.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 472 (2): 2054–2084.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Pandya, Viraj, Ryan Brennan, Rachel S Somerville, Ena Choi, Guillermo Barro, Stijn Wuyts, Edward N Taylor, Peter Behroozi, Allison Kirkpatrick, Sandra M Faber, Joel Primack, David C Koo, Daniel H McIntosh, Dale Kocevski, Eric F Bell, Avishai Dekel, Jerome J Fang, Henry C Ferguson, Norman Grogin, Anton M Koekemoer, Yu Lu, Kameswara Mantha, Bahram Mobasher, Jeffrey Newman, Camilla Pacifici, Casey Papovich, Arjen van der Wel, and Hassen M Yesuf. 2017. “The Nature of Massive Transition Galaxies in CANDELS, GAMA and Cosmological Simulations.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 472 (2): 2054–2084.
Vancouver
1.
Pandya V, Brennan R, Somerville RS, Choi E, Barro G, Wuyts S, et al. The nature of massive transition galaxies in CANDELS, GAMA and cosmological simulations. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY. 2017;472(2):2054–84.
IEEE
[1]
V. Pandya et al., “The nature of massive transition galaxies in CANDELS, GAMA and cosmological simulations,” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 472, no. 2, pp. 2054–2084, 2017.
@article{8567753,
  abstract     = {{We explore observational and theoretical constraints on how galaxies might transition between the 'star-forming main sequence' (SFMS) and varying 'degrees of quiescence' out to z = 3. Our analysis is focused on galaxies with stellar mass M* > 1010 M⊙, and is enabled by GAMA and CANDELS observations, a semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation, and a cosmological hydrodynamical 'zoom in' simulation with momentum-driven AGN feedback. In both the observations and the SAM, transition galaxies tend to have intermediate Sérsic indices, half-light radii, and surface stellar mass densities compared to star-forming and quiescent galaxies out to z = 3. We place an observational upper limit on the average population transition time-scale as a function of redshift, finding that the average high-redshift galaxy is on a 'fast track' for quenching whereas the average low-redshift galaxy is on a 'slow track' for quenching. We qualitatively identify four physical origin scenarios for transition galaxies in the SAM: oscillations on the SFMS, slow quenching, fast quenching, and rejuvenation. Quenching time-scales in both the SAM and the hydrodynamical simulation are not fast enough to reproduce the quiescent population that we observe at z ∼ 3. In the SAM, we do not find a clear-cut morphological dependence of quenching time-scales, but we do predict that the mean stellar ages, cold gas fractions, SMBH (supermassive black hole) masses and halo masses of transition galaxies tend to be intermediate relative to those of star-forming and quiescent galaxies at z < 3.}},
  author       = {{Pandya, Viraj and Brennan, Ryan and Somerville, Rachel S and Choi, Ena and Barro, Guillermo and Wuyts, Stijn and Taylor, Edward N and Behroozi, Peter and Kirkpatrick, Allison and Faber, Sandra M and Primack, Joel and Koo, David C and McIntosh, Daniel H and Kocevski, Dale and Bell, Eric F and Dekel, Avishai and Fang, Jerome J and Ferguson, Henry C and Grogin, Norman and Koekemoer, Anton M and Lu, Yu and Mantha, Kameswara and Mobasher, Bahram and Newman, Jeffrey and Pacifici, Camilla and Papovich, Casey and van der Wel, Arjen and Yesuf, Hassen M}},
  issn         = {{0035-8711}},
  journal      = {{MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY}},
  keywords     = {{galaxies: bulges,galaxies: evolution,galaxies: formation,galaxies: high-redshift,galaxies: star formation,galaxies: structure,STAR-FORMING GALAXIES,ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI,DIGITAL SKY SURVEY,STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS,POST-STARBURST GALAXIES,COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAM,SIMILAR-TO 1,LESS-THAN 3,CATALOGS SOURCE IDENTIFICATION,MODELS CONFRONT OBSERVATIONS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{2}},
  pages        = {{2054--2084}},
  title        = {{The nature of massive transition galaxies in CANDELS, GAMA and cosmological simulations}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx2027}},
  volume       = {{472}},
  year         = {{2017}},
}

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